Between 1815-1840 Upper Canada was under the influence of a few elite individuals known as the ‘Family Compact’. These individuals held sway through their control of large amounts of land and their dominance of the governments various branches. With their hold on the government of Upper Canada, the family compact aimed to create a government that regulated all aspects of society. However the people of Canada disliked the family compacts dominance of Upper Canada’s political system and when attempts to reform the Canadian political system through democratic means the people resorted to rebellion. The rebels lead by primarily William Lyon Mackenzie a prominent member of the reform party and newspaper owner who was inspired by the American Revolution. The British government acted swiftly bringing an end to the rebellion. Although the rebellion was quashed the family compact began to lose its influence in Canadian politics and was squeezed out by moderate parties. By looking at sources from and written on the times we can observe that the Upper Canada Rebellion of 1837-1839 was caused by the oligarchic rule of the Family Compact in Upper Canada. This can be observed to be true by looking at the socio-economic differences that divided the family compact from the settlers, how the family compact held power and how that power was gained and maintained, and the religious conflict between the settlers and the family compact. The social and economic differences that divided the Family Compact and the common people of Canada can be traced back early immigration into Canada and a the socio-economic divides that rose before, during and after the period of rapid population growth that Canada underwent from 1815-1840. Before this period of po... ... middle of paper ... ...en/article/rebellion-in-upper-canada/ C.W. Jeffereys, “The Rebels March Upon Toronto”, www.cinefocus.com, accessed November 26, 2013 http://stevendbennett.wordpress.com/essays/popular-mythology-and-the-rebellions-of-1837-in-upper-canada/ Francis et. all, 313 Colin Read and Ronald J. Stagg, “The Causes of the Rebellion,” in Visions: The Canadian History Modules Project, (Toronto:Nelson, 2011), 322-323 http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/rebellion-in-upper-canada/ Francis et. all, 314 Francis et. all, 324 http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/mackenzie_william_lyon_9E.html William Lyon Mackenzie,“W L Mackenzie on Resistance to Oppression,” in Visions: The Canadian History Modules Project, (Toronto:Nelson, 2011), 306 Constitutional Act of 1791 Francis et. all, 314 http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/strachan_john_9E.html Francis et. all, 323-324.
Chong, M. R. (2002). Canadian History Since WWI. Retrieved May 19, 2014, from Markville: http://www.markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca/history/history/fivecent.html
To begin Sprague argues that the Canadian Government disingenuously mismanaged Metis land organization. Sprague states that evidence of this can be seen in the Canadian government not allowing the Lieutenant Governor Adams G. Archibald to make changes to Section 31 and 32 of the Manitoba Act. Archibald proposed the government grant outlined in Section 31 should allocate each person of Aboriginal ancestry an allotment of “140 acres” (pg.75) of land. Archibald also suggested that the location of these allotments be in close proximity so as to “not disperse families throughout the province” (Pg. 75). Lastly Archibald proposed a suggestion in carrying out Section 32 which insured that land owned was not jeopardized during the process of confederacy. He recommended that Manitoba be recognized as an independent province such that affairs including land ownership would be dealt with on a provincial level. Therefore as Sprague argues Archibald’s words were not taken into consideration by both the governments of John A. Macdonald and Alexa...
William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canada’s longest serving prime minister, is known for both the great contributions he brought to Canada and for the scandals he was involved in. The one event that makes him most famous to Canadians is the King-Byng Affair of 1926. During this event, Mackenzie King asked Lord Byng to dissolve parliament in order to force a new election as he had lost with a minority. Because King’s intentions were to regain a majority government, Byng refused out of distrust for King’s plans and King was replaced in power by the Conservatives. While William Lyon Mackenzie King’s actions were in accordance with all the laws regarding his power as Prime Minister, he acted for selfish reasons thus putting him in the wrong. Mackenzie King’s and Lord Byng’s histories will be quickly analyzed to understand their actions in the affair. Right after, King’s options and reasons for dissolving parliament will be analyzed. Thirdly, Byng’s options and reasons for refusing King’s request will be researched. Once enough evidence has been collected, the end results of this affair will be discussed and the conclusion as to whether or not King was right to go against responsible government will be made.
In conclusion Canada gained independence because of a series of events that took place during the twentieth century. If it hadn’t been for these events, Canada to this day might have been a part of the British Empire. Through discussion on the Chanak affair we signalled that we wanted autonomy. Through our hard work and lives, the world knew we had the ability to stand alone as a strong nation. While, our international reputation of being a “peacekeeping” country the right to stand as an independent self-governing nation. But finally through the Canada Act, we stood solely independent from our Empire. It is obvious that the twentieth century provided us with great chances to become an independent strong nation.
"We must cherish our inheritance. We must preserve our nationality for the youth of our future. The story should be written down to pass on." (Louis Riel, 1884). Louis Riel, a man of great nature and abiding love for his western Métis heritage, is proven to be one of the most revolutionary men looked upon in the chronicles of the Dominion of Canada. In spite of this, he remains as one of the most controversial and cryptic figures throughout the course of Canadian history, leading to the question, is he recognized as the Father of Confederation or a treasonous rebel? A period of revolution lasting from the 1870’s to the late 1880’s was condemned with constant revolts justified as an intervening year for those involved; initiated by Riel. Although his actions may have struck him as a villain, Riel’s actions benefitted Canada greatly. Louis Riel is regarded as a hero by preserving the civil liberties and identities of the Métis and leading two memorable resistance movements against the Canadian government, in which to sustain their heritage. Louis Riel is claimed to be a valiant but flawed conqueror. However, despite all these flaws, he is known to be one of Canada’s national heroes, as he left a substantial impact on Canadian history as a dominant individual within civilization.
To start off, I’ll be writing about the life of people in British North America and its significance towards unifying Canada, as well as background knowledge of conflicts that existed. Life in British North America was changing at an alarming rate. New technology and services were being introduced such as railways and steamships. Industries such as building, producing and farming were being introduced. This was in part due to the many immigrants from Britain and France who’d settled. This was dreadful for the First Nations as their land had been taken away even more so than before. More resources were needed for the growing crowd so trade agreements were made. As more people came, the First Nations were even more distanced from the Europeans. Meanwhile, the French and the British wanted the other’s culture to be erased from the
Robertson Davies, Fifth Business, Penguin Books Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1970. Sara Jeanette Duncan, The Imperialist, McClelland &Stewart Inc., Toronto, 1990. George Grant, Lament for a Nation, Carleton University Press, 1995, SOSC 2200 9.0A course kit. Sandra Gwyn, Tapestry of War, (Harper Collins, 1992, SOSC 2200 9.0A course kit. C.P. Stacey, Mackenzie King and the Atlantic Triangle, Joanne Goodman Lectures, 1976, SOSC 2200 9.0A course kit. Professor John Hutcheson, "King: The Quebec Connection and The U.S. Connection", SOSC 2200 9.0A Lecture, York University, Toronto, 4 Oct. 1999. Eric Kierans, The Source of All Our Troubles, Canadian Forum, 1992, SOSC 2200 9.0A course kit. Hugh MacLennan, Barometer Rising, McClelland &Stewart Inc., Toronto, 1989.
Harold Cardinal made a bold statement in his book, The Unjust Society, in 1969 about the history of Canada’s relationship with Aboriginal peoples. His entire book is, in fact, a jab at Pierre Elliott Trudeau’s idea of ‘the just society’. Pierre Elliott Trudeau made great assumptions about First Nations people by declaring that Aboriginal people should be happy about no longer being described as Indian. His goal was to rid Canada of Indians by assimilating them into the Canadian framework. Considered by many as a progressive policy, Trudeau’s white paper demonstrates just how accurate the following statement made by Harold Cardinal at the beginning of his book is : “The history of Canada’s Indians is a shameful chronicle of the white man’s disinterest,
Two history texts by Bumstead and Silver will be considered. The manner in which they organize Canadian history into logical and comprehensive periods will be taken into account. Each text establishes a chronological framework and within this, creates historical periods. Each period is intended to represent as logically as possible, the major cultural inclinations, political and social events, and thematic trends occurring within that period. Bumstead and Silver outline several broad periods, then delve into each period with a precise focus. Silver has a social focus within each period, and Bumstead has a thematic focus.
The rebellions of Upper and Lower Canada were in the interests of self-government but were doomed to failure from their beginning. Each of these two colonies encountered a great deal of problems right from the institution of the Constitution Act of 1791 and the problems continually got worse until the only choice to some seem to be rebellion. There were several problems that lead to the rebellions of 1837-38. In Lower Canada there was the agricultural crisis that caused a large number of starvations, to the French and English political and social problems within the colony. There were several different reasons that caused the rebellion in Upper Canada but these caused were mainly rooted in the idea of Anti- Americanism that was held within the Family Compact. Both rebellions had valid causes and noble intentions but they lacked the most necessary part for a rebellion to succeed in its intentions, the support of the people. Without support these two rebellions could never succeed.
The British North America Act went into effect July 1st, 1867 creating a union known as the Dominion of Canada, but this did not complete the debate on the Confederation issue. Many Nova Scotians continued their opposition to the idea and it would take considerable time before all Nova Scotians would accept the fact of Confederation. “These Nova Scotians, disgruntled at their treatment by Great Britain, found that their loyalty had markedly diminished. The more they considered taking over the responsibility for their own affairs from England, however, the greater trust they had to place in Confederation.”25 Confederation struck a balance between the rights of English and French speaking Canadians. Nevertheless, many divisions, conflicts, and debates would occur not only in Quebec but also in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick over this balance. Economic disparities between the Maritimes and the rest of Canada would also create many problems for the years following 1867. As a result, Confederation can be viewed as a beginning and not an end.
Canada is known by outsiders to be a very peaceful country. But if you ask any Canadian they well tell you that is unfortunately not the case. For there is a large ongoing conflict between Canadians. The conflict is between the French and the English, or more specifically between Quebec and the rest of Canada. As a result of this conflict, along with some wrongdoing and propaganda. Quebec has considered and has gone as far to hold referendums over Separatism (Surette,2014). Separatism is that the province of Quebec separates from the rest of Canada to form its own country. Which would have immense effects on indubitably Quebec but also the rest of Canada (Martin, 2014). This report will focus on the root causes and origin of Quebec Separatism, the current state of Quebec Separatism and finally how we as a society can act towards Quebec Separatism.
Thompson, John Herd, and Mark Paul Richard. "Canadian History in North American Context." In Canadian studies in the new millennium. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008. 37-64.