This is the second stage, known as the support stage. The support stage also uses many different muscles, the quadriceps femoris, foot invertors and everters and the gluteus minimus, medius and tensor fascia lata. During the support stage, the quad is used to keep the leg extended and accept the weight of the body. The foot invertors and everters work together to stabilize the foot. There are two muscles that produce inversion, tibialis anterior, and tibialis posterior.
Of course every material have their own different function. The most important parts of running shoes are upper part of shoe, insole, midsole and outsole. According to Kenneth W. Graham, Edward J. Norton, and Shuhei Kurata(1985), the stabilizer supported by sole unit to surround upper within the region of the heel to provide support for the upper of the footwear. Armin A. Dassler (1983) said with an absorbs impacts outsole soft resilient material, which on its drive side a profile is made of wear-resistant material, with certain areas of the outsole are made for more flexible than the remaining sole areas. Armin A. Dassler (1983) also said that the character in that outsole regions of differing compliance only in the heel and possibly also in the joint are present, the arrangement being such that the heel and possibly the joint region with lesser compliance on the inside of the outsole starts and up to the maximum through the sole longitudinal axis extending the central plane of the running sole.
Photographic Analysis of the ‘Burpee’ Phase one: In this position the athlete stands upright with their feet slightly separated and parallel, the arms hanging easily at the sides with the palms facing the body. When standing still muscles co-contract to stabilise the body and prevent it from falling or flopping due to the effects of gravity. The key joints that stabilize the body are the ankle joint, knee joint, hip joint, vertebral column and the shoulder girdle. The soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior contract isometrically to keep the ankle stable at 90 degrees (Teachpe.com n.d.) (The previous reference identified was used to identify key joint types and muscles throughout my analysis). The knee joint is extended when in the standing position, to stabilize this joint the biceps femoris, semi-mebranosus, semi-tendonosus (hamstrings) and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius and vastus medialis (quadriceps) co-contract isometrically.
The knee joint is formed by the articulation of the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia. The fibula is only involved to the extent that it serves as an attachment site for connective tissue. In this paper, the anatomy of the joint will be discussed. The knee is a hinge-type, diarthrotic, or freely moveable joint. Also referred to as a synovial joint, the 2 articulating ends of bone are encased in a capsule that lubricates the joint with synovial fluid to reduce friction.
The gait cycle is divided into two phases: Stance phase, when the foot is in contact with the ground and the Swing phase, when the foot is in the air. The initial contact marks the start of the stance phase, after which the
This joint is a complex hinge joint and in addition to allowing flexion and extension, it permits limited rolling, gliding, and rotational movement. This joint is dependent on the muscles and ligaments which surround it for strength. The structure of knee is examined below: 1.2.1 Bones The knee is made up of four bones. The femur superiorly, which is the large bone in the thigh. This attaches by ligaments and a capsule to the tibia (or the shinbone) inferiorly.
A sprained ankle refers to soft tissue damage (mainly ligaments) around the ankle, usually caused by an inversion injury (where the ankle is twisted inwards) or an eversion injury (where the ankle is twisted outwards). Often said it is better to fracture an ankle rather than to sprain an ankle. A fractured ankle will completely heal itself with proper care and rehabilitation the athlete can return to 100% playing capacity. Unfortunately once an ankle has been sprained the ligaments will never fully heal. With proper exercise and rehabilitation ankle sprains can be treated effectively.
There are two main phases to the running cycle: Support and Forward Recovery Support Phase: This is the phase when the runner is touching the ground, and makes up about 30%-40% of the running cycle. Foot-strike: The foot touches the ground slightly ahead of the center of mass. When the foot contact occurs, several actions take place: the knee flexes, the tibia internally rotates, the ankle plantar flexes, and the subtalar joint pronates (Miliron & Cavanagh, 1990). It is necessary to have a certain amount of pronation to disseminate the energy of the foot-strike. The foot during the foot-strike should be straight and in line with the direction of linear motion.
The various bones and joints of the foot are what allows the foot to be flexible. In order for the foot to be able to support any weight the various of bones must form an arch. The foot has three arches that are maintain by the shape of the bones and by the ligaments. The arches are supported by the muscles and tendons. A foot is a strong, flexible, and durable it allows us to daily activities as we please while carrying all the
Intro – slide 1 – acetate 1 The skeleton of a human foetus is formed from tough but flexible cartilage that acts as a blueprint for bone construction. During ossification ( the changing of cartilage to bone) which begins before birth, the cartilage is broken down and the resulting space is filled by bone building mineral salts and protein fibres secreted by bone cells. Humans have a bony endoskeleton made up of 206 bones, although we are born with up to 300, but many of these fuse during childhood. slide 2 The skeleton is divided into two parts ; the axial and the appendiculur. Axial skeleton The axial skeleton consists of the skull, backbone and rib cage which forms the upright axis of the body.