Qualitative Anatomical Analysis: A Standing Broad Jump
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Qualitative Anatomical Analysis
A standing broad jump is a jump for distance from a standing position. It can be divided into four temporal phases: countermovement, propulsion, flight, and landing. In the countermovement phase, the subject squats to load up and extends the shoulders and the arms. In the propulsion phase, the goal is to generate enough force to propel the body forward. The person must stand erect in full extension of the trunk, hips, and knees. Then, the person flexes at the hip and the knee, which results with the trunk being rotated in a forward direction. Next, the arms become slightly flexed to hyperextension, to full flexion. Prior to the flight phase, the body goes into full extension. The flight phase begins as soon as the feet have left the ground. During this phase, the body stays in full extension or can become hyperextended. Towards the end of the flight phase, the trunk rotates forward in an anterior direction along with minor hip and knee flexion just before landing. During the landing phase, the knees and the hips are in maximum flexion and forward rotation of the trunk. There is also arm movement by moving both arms in the vertical direction to improve jumping distance. At the onset of the jump, the arm swings forward and during landing, they swing back and forth.
This skill involves jumping in the sagittal plane about the transverse axis. It consists of hip, knee, ankle, and shoulder joints. In the preparation phase in propulsion, the subject has flexed knees and hips which will need to be straightened by the strength of their corresponding joints such as the hinge joint at the knee joint. The hip joint is a ball and socket joint that bears the body weight and allows for jumping motion. During th...
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...ject’s/object’s weight multiplied by the velocity the subject/object is moving at, squared. In order for the broad jumper to increase the change in kinetic energy he/she needs to produce a faster velocity. This would mean he/she would have to produce a quick and efficient transition from flexion to extension at the beginning of the broad jump. Potential energy is defined as the amount of energy that is “stored” within a subject or object. The mathematical formula for potential energy is PE=mgh, where “m” mass, “g” is the acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s), and “h” is height. The broad jumper has most amount of potential energy when he/she is at the apex of the flight phase. In order to increase the amount of change in potential energy the athlete must obtain the greatest height possible. This allows the athlete to fall longer, thus obtaining a further distance.