According to Stuart A. Kallen in 525 BC Egypt lost its independence and would not regain it for the next 2,500. Alexander the Great was the first to conquer Egypt, leading up to the colonization by the British-Ottoman Empire and many more. One of the most important pre-colonization dynasties was the Ptolemaic, it ran on a Greek political structure and supported the growing culture center of artists, scientist, and philosophers. As it passed through the hands of the Romans, a new dynasty of Muslims formed the Fatimid. They brought a “period of prosperity for Egypt” (Kallen, 42)
Finally the European’s frenzy to colonize nations reached Egypt. Beginning with France, but Napoleons control was not long lived, British and Ottoman Empire took an interest in Egypt. After the first attack on August 1, 1798 Napoleon fled leaving Egypt bankrupt and on June 18, 1805 the French lost any control they had over Egypt. As claimed by Kallen,
In 1805 a leader appointed by the indirect colonizers Muhammad Ali Pasha was given the position of Khedive representative of the ottom suttan, as ruler Muhammad desired to bring his country into the industrial age as Europe was. He was called the “Father of Modern Egypt” He brought in military experts from France to strengthen his military to European standards. He got investors to support the building of factories for textiles, such as cotton and silk productions. He drafted workers to factories for sugar, indigo dye, glass and iron. Not only did he value industrialization but also his people’s education was of great importance, he hired European scholars to teach at medical and engineering schools. He also set up a student exchange program for young Egyptians to study in European to study in European schools. Muhammad’s leadership fallowed more in the footsteps of British politics even though he reported to an Ottoman Empire leader. His focus on his country made him a strong and efficient leader, achieving so much for his country just in his lifetime. Muhammad Ali Pasha shed light on positive attribute that colonization brought to Egypt.
This golden age was cut short by Khedive Ismail; he wanted so much for Egypt to be modernizing that he sent Egypt into such a debt that they had to sell their large shares of the Suez Canal. All of the roads, schools, railroads, bridges irrigation, and waterlines were too much too much for Egypt to afford so they lost the highly fought over canal.