Once in place, the Unit Administrator, Rhody McCoy, fired several teachers inciting one of the most profound racial standoffs in the city’s history. The evolution of the national civil rights movement parallels the changing attitudes of blacks involved in Ocean Hill Brownsville. In addition, evidence of differing theories concerning assimilation to the American ethnicity is portrayed through the actions of the participants. In 1954, The Brown vs. The Board of Education decision made segregation in schools illegal.
There was a large lawsuit about integration in Little Rock in 1952 that wanted to have black students attend an all white school. Unfortunately, a petition was filed opposing black kids going to an all white school. Miraculously ,May 17, 1954 was the surprising day that the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Their ruling stated that segregating public schools made them unequal and was illegal. Segregationists did whatever it was necessary to stop the integration in Central High School.
Her willingness to be arrested rather than give in one more time led to the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott” (Beals, 1995, p. 20). Then in February 8, 1956, the NAACP demanded that the schools integrate immediately. The Little Rock governor, Orval Faubus, refused to support integration of the Arkansas schools. As all this unfolded, white citizens became increasingly incandescent and even violent towards blacks (Beals, 1995). In 1955 a group of over 100 students voluntarily signed their name on a paper stating they would like to attend an all-white-school.
In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. As one of the first schools to integrate Central High School because known for the Little Rock Nine, a group of nine selected African American students that changed history and started to change the common thought of African Americans to a positive one. For the purpose of this paper I will discuss the positive effects of Central High School’s integration and the Little Rock Nine. In 1954, the Supreme Court decided that the segregation in public schools would be unconstitutional. About a year later they reiterated the declaration that segregation is unconstitutional and said that they needed to desegregate “with all deliberate speed.” Some school district started to figure out loopholes to get around the desegregation but school officials at Little Rock, AK said that they would agree to desegregate and comply with what the Supreme Court said.
By 1877 the Democratic Party had gained control of government in the Southern states, and these Southern Democrats wanted to reverse black advances made during Reconstruction. To that end, they began to pass local and state laws that specified certain places ?For Whites Only? and others for ?Colored.? Blacks had separate schools, transportation, restaurants, and parks, many of which were poorly funded and inferior to those of whites. Over 75 years, Jim Crow signs went up to separate the races in every possible place.
On the other side of the outcome people were enraged over schools segregating, President Dwight D. Eisenhower had to send troops into Arkansas in 1957. At Little Rock High School in 1957, nine African-American students were prevented from entering school. Ten days later Eisenhower called a meeting with Governor Orval Faubus, who was behind the Arkansas National Guard blocking their access, Faubus agreed to use the National Guard to help the students, but upon his return he dismissed the troops and left the students to an angry crowd of whites. This case has instilled a sense of what is right in racial equality and has stamped its foot in history with a landmark case. This is a change that has been embraced and still is today.
The Supreme Court ruled, against President Eisenhower’s wishes, in favour of Brown, which set a precedent in education, that schools should no longer be segregated. This was the case which completely overturned the Jim Crow Laws by overturning Plessy vs. Ferguson. Up until 1955, many of the Northern, white Americans were unaware of the extent of the racism in the ‘Southern States’, one instance in 1955 changed that greatly. The death of Emmet Till became a vital incident in the civil rights movement dude to the horrific pictures of the young boy that circulated throughout America. It is thought that up to 50,000 people viewed the body of Emmet Till, as it appeared in a number of newspapers and magazines, this greatly increased awareness of racism i... ... middle of paper ... ...t there was no real haste to desegregate schools, in Brown II the Supreme Court declared that desegregation should occur ‘with all deliberate speed’, but the events at Little Rock in 1957 proved that the whites were still persisting in segregation.
Board of Education may have ruled that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and declared that public schools must desegregate, but these achievements cannot be the only thing one considers (Brown, 1954). While the desegregation of schools serves as a landmark victory of the Civil Rights movement of America, every battle comes with costs. When schools desegregated, most Black students moved into predominantly White districts. To do the opposite would never be considered, due to the fact that the schools designated for Black children were often run down and lacked adequate funding. As a result of students leaving, Black educators lost a total of “38,000 jobs...between 1954 and 1965” (Ladson-Billings, 2004).
Board of Education of Topeka was considered a landmark United States Supreme Court case, in which segregation in public schools between blacks and whites was declared unconstitutional. This case overturned the horrendous “separate but equal” statute that was established in 1863 in the United States Supreme Court case of Plessy v. Ferguson. Parents of twenty African American students who attended elementary school in the Topeka school district filed this case. They called for the school district to reverse its policy on racial segregation in schools. The lower court admits that segregation in schools is detrimental to African American children, but still denies the plaintiffs relief saying that the schools are separate but substantially equal regarding the buildings, transportation, curriculum, and educational qualifications of teachers.
This racism has now been transferred into schools across the country. To get an idea of where racism started in schools, we first have to look at the past. Just three years after the Brown vs. Board of Education ruling that segregated schools was unconstitutional, nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School. On their first day of high school, the nine students were forbidden to enter due to the fact the Arkansas National Guard was blocking the entrance to the school. The first day... ... middle of paper ... ...color of their skin, then America will have a huge problem on its hands.