The level of car ownership and usage nowadays is unsustainable leading to polluted and unhealthy cities. Each of the mentioned concerns can be considered important to shift toward a more sustainable urban development. Spatial planning main purpose is to find ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the local, regional and national level. Although major countries, like UK, are directing transport policy initiatives toward usage of sustainable mobility, it is difficult to implement in practice in a society used to travel by car (Hutton, 2013). The existing city form and urban fabric have contributed to increased car usage.
Mitigating Risk in Transportation Costs Finding ways to move goods from one point to another at a reasonable cost and within an acceptable time frame is a growing challenge for global businesses today. The costs and risks associated with transportation are increasing with the advent of globalization and low-cost-country sourcing. Even for companies with local operations only, they have to supply their products to various parts of a country which increases the costs and risks. Since the cost of gasoline has been on an upward trend, high level of efficiency in transportation is required to lower the costs involved and the risks associated with the costs. Costs concepts in transportation include economic, social and accounting costs.
Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5 , 1-20. Mineta, N. Y. (2006). Public-private partnerships strengthen transport investment. Journal of Transportaion,Law,Logistics & Policy , 401-409.
1 Introduction Brownfield development is the process of redevelopment on previously developed lands that are abandoned, closed or underused (Adams, De Sousa & Tiesdell, 2010). While some brownfield can be too contaminated, most brownfields are re-useable to create great value once cleaned up. And in this world of scarce resources, brownfield development becomes crucial as we focus more on sustainability and resource optimizing. While factors of rising awareness of urban sustainability issues, presence of derelict/disused urban space and society’s rising demand for ‘urban lifestyle’ promotes brownfield development, the process to transfer from greenfield development to brownfield development can be very complicated. In this paper, I will be focusing on the impacts of government regulation, land ownership and developer behaviour on urban brownfield residential development process.
According to the data from Statistics Canada (2012), the construction sector produced 2.1% of total Canadian industrial sector’s GHG emissions in 2008. The purpose of this project is to convince the construction companies in Waterloo region to adapt feasible best practices for GHG emission reduction during construction process. Therefore, guidance for GHG emissions calculation and best practices should be determined firstly. Before promoting those best practices to the construction companies in Waterloo, proper guidance of GHG emissions calculation should be provided firstly in order to help them calculate their GHG emissions and determine their problems. Considering this issue, some protocols can be used, which include inventory, toolsets and guidance for GHG emissions calculation (Matthews, Hendrickson & Weber, 2008).
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Thynell, M., Mohan, D., & Tiwari, G. (2010). Sustainable transport and the modernisation of urban transport in Delhi and Stockholm. Cities, 27(6), 421–429. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.04.002 Walter, A. I., & Scholz, R. W. (2006).
(n.d.) What is the Energy Policy Act of 1992(EPAct)? Retrieved May 25, 2005 from http://www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/vbg/whatis_epact.shtml Triangle Clean Cities Coalition. (n.d.) Fueling Alternative Choices Today. Success Stories. Retrieved May 29, 2005, from http://www.trianglecleancities.org/success.htm#doamfm
INTRODUCTION: There are many problems with the current ATC system most of which is because it is out dated and there is progressively becoming more and more traffic in the air. It is going to come to the point where the current system will not be able to handle the increasing traffic. PURPOSE: Increasing traffic has caused the development of a new technology called Next Gen. The new technology is a very different approach to the current system and may incur various problems during the transformation process. The research shown will show what is occurring in the air traffic control world and how the Next Gen system is going to benefit over the old system.
Economic implication of congestion Congestion is a condition of traffic delay due to the number of vehicles trying to use the road exceeds the traffic network capacity to handle them. Congestion is a major problem growing in many towns like Windhoek. In general congestion delays travel to reach their destination on time as planned. One can be thinking of implementing congestion charging to reduce to reduce this issue. There are many various economic implications of congestion as follow: Congestion causes loss of productivity Business exists in towns where many people live, for them to sell or buy products and make profits.
Any small mistake or defect in construction could lead to rework and rectification, thus increasing the project cost. This type of construction involves a lot of wastage in terms of solid waste as well as labor force, which MP Constructions should be concerned about. Also, it is labor intensive and also entertains the risk of schedule delay due to unpredictable weather conditions. (The Self Build Guide, 2016) 3.5