Overall, Rawls argues that the most distinctive role of justice in society is to equally distribute rights and duties to individuals. The underlying egalitarian viewpoint is that individuals do not possess any characteristics that would “justify inequalities in the distribution of social benefits and burdens”. The principles of justice, as depicted in Rawls book, are chosen by individuals an initial position of equality. These principles can be applied to solve structural issues in society such as the distribution of social and economic advantages, the distribution of basic rights and duties to citizens. Rawls argues that in order for the principles of justice to establish an ideal society, where equality between citizens is realized, several hypothetical ... ... middle of paper ... ... interest while in pursuit of maximizing happiness.
The principles of justice are in place to ensure that the “assignment of rights and duties” through the basic structure of society justly distribute both the “benefits and burdens” of social and economic advantages (Rawls, 47). Drawing from the difference principle, inequalities in wealth and income can be justified if all parties benefit as a result. In comparison to the alternative interpretations of natural liberty and liberal equality, a system of democratic equality holds to “pure procedural justice…[although] this still leaves too much to social and natural contingency” (Rawls, 69). Given this notion, however, the difference principle is fully “compatible with the principle of efficiency” (Rawls, 69). When tying the difference principle with fair equality of opportunity, it ensures that while individuals may have drastically different situations, the situations themselves are justified as long as the structure serves to “improve the expectations of the least advantaged... ... middle of paper ... ...uld be in Nozick’s framework (Rawls, 76).
The first principle is about ensuring that everyone individual is given the most basic resources to ensure the compatibility with others of the society. The second principle speaks of creating a context to which social and economic positions. Both theorist have different interpretations of the liberty that and individual has and due to this creating major differences in how they view society as a whole as well as the individual , government’s role in society , justice , freedom and social good and or social we... ... middle of paper ... ...asic structure of society. His concepts of this is that justice is fairness , for society’s based upon social institutions being fair to all cooperating individuals of society, regardless of their race , gender , religion, class origin. “Rawls also emphasizes publicity as an aspect of fairness.
An egalitarian’s doctrine reflects that it is desirable that people 's condition be made the same in any respect or that people ought to be treated the same in any respect. Also egalitarian might rather be one who maintains that people ought to be treated as equals, as possessing equal fundamental worth and dignity and as equally morally considerable (Gibson, 2014, p. 114) b. Contributors: i. John Rawls (1921-2002), a contemporary egalitarian who wrote a book in 1972, a theory of justice stated that we are better off through social cooperation than living alone by our own efforts (Gibson, 2014, p. 114). 1. He believed, “no one should be advantaged or disadvantaged by natural fortune or social circumstances (Gibson, 2014, p.
Furthermore, I believe that fair equality of opportunity is required for justice because it is bringing light to the fact that justice requires equal rights for all in all circumstances and without fair equality of opportunity, justice would never be fully satisfied because some would be advantaged over others. Rawls’ equality of opportunity is not considered fully sufficient because he says “society should take into account economic efficiency and the requirements of organizations and technology,” meaning that if there are inequalities with any aspects of life that work to better everyone despite the concept of equality, than that is what should be permitted. The reason I believe that Rawls’ is correct on his idea of equality of opportunity idea is because I believe that we are required to consider everything when making decisions as a society and it is a problem to only look at the merits or experience of certain individuals when superior advantages are at hand. In addition, In Rawls second principle of justice he says that fair equality of opportunity requires that citizens with the same talents and willingness to use those talents should have the same educational and economic opportunities regardless of their
The general concept of Rawls “original position” is that all social “Primary Good” should be distributed equally to individuals in a society, unless an unequal distribution favors those less fortunate. Rawls call “the situation of ignorance about your own place in society the “original position (242).” Rawls’ theory is in direct response to John Lock’s principles on social contract which states that people in a free society need to set rules on how to live with one another in peace. Rawls’ principles were designed to guards against injustices, which was inflicted upon society, with the help of John Stuart Mills Utilitarianism principle that individuals should act so as to maximize the greatest good for the greatest number. Mills principle justified Nazi Germany's mistreatment of the Jews and the United States' mistreatment of African- Americans. Rawls’ argues that a person’s good is that which is needed for the successful execution of a rational long-term goal of life given reasonably favorable circumstances.
Rawls defines justice as fairness as the choices made in the original position, saying, “They are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial position of equality defining the fundamental terms of their association...This way of regarding the principles of justice we shall call justice as fairness.”(10) By assuming people in the original position could only make rational, unbiased judgements, Rawls claims principles reached in this position would be the most just. Considering the veil of ignorance creates a lack of knowledge about individual positions and personal conceptions of the good, choices in the original position are limited in ability to unfairly distribute economic and political advantages. Although named justice as fairness, Rawls theory does not attempt to redistribute primary goods among all member of society, rather it only attempts to show how the principles chosen in the original principle would benefit all members of society. With the introduction of the original position, Rawls intends to show how justice as fairness is a more attractive choice than utilitarianism. In defin... ... middle of paper ... ... equality would be chosen under the original position.
The difference principle is meant to give the most advantage to the least advantaged group in society by providing “fair and equal opportunity” (61). Throughout his work, Rawl’s argues for a philosophical basis for a realistic utopia that would balance liberty and equality through a social contract where a well-ordered democratic society, made up of free and equal citizens, would agree together on what constitutes a fair society. By entering in Original Position and under the veil of ignorance, the parties would come to his two basic principles of justice.
Utilitarian Perspectives: According to utilitarianism, a society has its laws and institutions to promote the greatest overall or average happiness to its people. How is this happiness determined to the members of society? Happiness cannot be directly measured with anything we have available, so utilitarians must approach this indirectly – that being an idea of good (Camic, 1979, p.519-522). This theory of good is required for them to flourish with social conditions and forms, that will benefit people in society and is essential to the recognition of that good, which is the principle of utility (Camic, 1979, p.519-522). People thoug... ... middle of paper ... ...ere is pure competition, hence the individuals who cannot be in competition are robbed of justice and fairness.
Rawls' View of Ignorance Rawls theory of justice revolves around the adaptation of two fundamental principles of justice which would, in turn, guarantee a just and morally acceptable society. The first principle guarantees the right of each person to have the most extensive basic liberty compatible with the liberty of others. The second principle states that social and economic positions are to be a) to everyone's advantage and b) open to all. A key problem to Rawls is to show how such principles would be universally adopted and here the work borders on general ethical issues. He introduces a theoretical "veil of ignorance" in which all the "players" in the social game would be placed in a situation which is called the "original position".