Lesson planning is a map to student learning, the resources teachers use influence student learning. For this reason, it is important to understand how to evaluate instructional material. There are many things to consider when choosing material resources this paper will examine the importance of the design, procedures, clarity, and efficiency when choosing lesson plans. When choosing learning resources teachers need to ensure that all students feel valued, and supported regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is also important that materials chosen will help all students succeed in school regardless of their abilities, backgrounds, cultures, or linguistic differences.
Teaching and learning a second or foreign language is much like teaching in the general education classroom. ESL classrooms need structure, nurturing, and sufficient instructional strategies. With such diversity among adolescent ELs, it is important for teachers to learn as much as possible about their students’ background, prior knowledge, and experiences, and to have knowledge of strategies that directly address the needs of their students. Instructors need to build relationships of trust with their students and their families. Also, teachers need to establish predictable classroom routines and procedures.
Effective teachers shouldn’t wait for assessment results to determine what their students know or don’t know, an effective teacher should gather their own information through quality of instruction. Quality of instruction is the extent to which the instruction to be given is appropriate to the learner (Bloom, 1976, pp, 10-11) cited in (Squires, 2009). Effective questioning and use of assessment by teachers is ways that students outcomes can be achieved, teachers ask questions to encourage critical thinking skills, effectively assess the nature of their learning and building confidence within the students. Effective questioning builds students thinking by encouraging students to reflect on their idea and concepts and compare them with other pupils. Questions from teachers can help them understand what the students know and need to improve upon, this can help the teacher to set out and plan tasks for students to learn and develop in a certain subject.
An assessment should reflect real world applications of how knowledge and understanding are used. Assessments based on situations that are relevant to students' own experiences can motivate them to give their best performance. One of the most essential educational tools is the classroom assessment. When used properly, assessments can help educators better understand what their students are learning. Classroom assessments help educators identify students strengths and weakness, monitor student learning and progress as well as plan and conduct instruction.
One important aspect to make students’ learning valuable is to focus the planning in setting objectives in terms of desired outcomes (knowledge skills, attitudes, values) that we want our students to develop. By developing clear objectives, students feel that there is a reason for learning. Also, it is important to provide feedback, because it helps students improve their goals’ achievement and solidify their understanding. Teachers need to communicate objectives, in this way students will be able to know what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn. Some recommendations for setting objectives in the classroom are: Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive: it is important to know the specific standards, benchmarks and supporting learning that students at school are required to learn.
The teacher should create situations in and out of the classroom to help the students get to know each other better. Finally, the teacher should create situations that will show the students that each individual’s behavior, within the group, influences the others’. Creating a Motivational Environment Teachers must be enthusiastic about the subject they are teaching, this can likely help lead the students to be enthusiastic about what they are learning. Teachers should also express to the students that their learning is important to you by always offering assistance and explain things to them individually if necessary. If a student senses that their teacher doesn’t care it can be the fastest way to undermine their motivation (Dornyei, 1998).
Planning and developing a good curriculum based assessment is vital for correct execution of mastery learning. The progress of specific learning units should explain exactly what is the teachers need from the students for proficiency. A few of the expectations that the teachers will require include, learning goals, learning outcomes, and learning objectives they are crucial to the student’s success. The declaring of these expectations is important to the success of the student. The practice would be achieved to the fullest if the students are allowed play an active role in decision making regarding learning goals and objectives.
One important element is that feedback provides a foundation for positive student and teacher relationships. By providing appropriate feedback, the students understand the teacher is genuinely concerned about them and their education. This component also enhances a student’s self-efficacy and provides an avenue for motivation. Another benefit is feedback affords an opportunity for clarification of what is expected. Student performance and achievement increases as they are able to understand the expectations for the specified task or project.
A Reflection on the Analysis Throughout this course we have learned many aspects of designing and implementing a variety of assessments. From the applications, readings and presentations it is important to be assessment literate since we use assessments and the data they provide for a variety of reasons and we need to communicate those results to our students, other teachers, administrators and parents. It is essential for educators to understand how to properly make assessments that will truly assess the desired skills, knowledge and understanding of the content, using standards, we are teaching them. Teachers that are assessment literate provide a better learning process for their students and have them be the center of the process, since
If used properly, rubrics help teachers teach by avoiding any confusion within the assignment, and thus helping keep the students focused on what the criteria is and how to achieve it. Rubrics also help coordinate instruction and assessment by making the “path to learning more cohesive than a string of assignments with related but different criteria” (p. 8). With the use of rubrics helping teachers teach more effectively and helping coordinate the instruction of assignments it is only natural with these to working together that you would see an improvement in students learning. With effective rubrics showing students what is expected and how to achieve each level of criteria there will be an increase in the knowledge of the students understanding of what they are to