Research Paper On Enzymes

1062 Words3 Pages

Discussion The structure of an enzyme is a globular protein made up of amino acid and polymers which are linked together known as polypeptide bonds. Enzyme molecules are arched into a three dimensional shape, the outside of the molecule have hydrophillic R groups (side chains) ensuring they are soluble. As enzymes are proteins they can be damaged at high temperatures, this is known as denaturing. There are many enzymes in the body which catalyses or speeds up chemical reaction in cells that would otherwise proceed to slowly to support life. They react best at the ideal temperature of 36.7 °C as this is the normal temperature of human bodies. Enzymes are all used to break down certain food molecules and there are many types. Enzymes have a distinct shape as a certain enzyme can only react with a specific substrate. Co factors are required in some enzymes to enable them to work e.g. pepsin which breaks down protein and only works in the presence of h+ so it can only work inside the stomach. Enzyme inhibitors are molecules which help to reduce the rate of enzyme reaction by altering the shape of the active site either directly or indirectly and so reducing the amount enzyme available. Blocking enzyme activity further results in killing pathogens or correcting metabolic reactions within the human body, therefore many drugs which are used for hypertension are enzyme inhibitors, this result by relaxing the blood vessels within the body. (Jones, 2009) The active site is the area in which the substrate and the enzyme react together , allowing the substrate to fit perfectly and to be held in place by temporary bonds as it has the correct shape. The active site can be discussed more thoroughly through the lock and key theory which lo... ... middle of paper ... ...rate and taking its place in the active sight therefore blocking the path of the substrate. This slows down the enzyme activity. An increase in the substrate concentration would cause the substrate to displace the inhibitor therefore making a normal reaction take place at practical rate. (, 2013). In conclusion ; enzymes facilitate in speeding up reaction, these can be used repeatedly depending on external factors like the temperature which would affect the enzymes rate of reaction. If they have been exposed to high temperature then they can't be reused , this is because they become denatured. Other factors that affect enzyme activity in speed and efficiency while reacting are substrate concentrate and inhibitors. The model which gives more detailed explanation on how a enzyme substrate complex is produced is the induced fit model.

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