The transmission of hereditary traits to some extent has it’s molecular basis in the replication of DNA. The process of DNA replication produces numerous amounts of copies of genes that can be transferred/passed from the parent to the offspring. Animals and plants have specific cells that drive the inheritance of genes. These cell’s are called reproductive cell’s(gametes). Gametes transmit genes from one generation to the next.
A genetically engineered or “transgenic” animal is an animal that carries a known sequence of recombinant DNA in its cells and which passes to its offspring. Recombinant DNA refers to DNA fragments that have been joined together in a laboratory. The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the proteins that are encoded by the genes included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal. Because the genetic code for all organisms is made up of the same four nucleotide building blocks, this means that a gene makes the same protein whether it is made in an animal, a plant, or a microbe. The resultant recombinant DNA “construct” is usually designed to express the protein(s) that are encoded by the gene(s) included in the construct, when present in the genome of a transgenic animal.
DNA is the molecular instructions of life. It makes anything living common because all living organisms have DNA. DNA come together and form chromosomes after a while. When the cell goes through cell division, the DNA is copied and passed onto the new cell. The DNA structure is very unique.
The study of heredity is what is referred to as genetics. Genetic diversity is therefore described as any variation in the genes, chromosomes, nucleotides or sometime change in the whole genomes of an organism. Though genome is not well branded term for many, it is the entire balance of DNA within the cell or organelles of the organism. When one talks of genetic diversity in its most elementary level, it is represented by differentiation in the sequence of nucleotides that form the DNA within the cell of an organism. A permanent change in the DNA sequence which makes up a gene is what is referred to as gene mutation (Mahoney & Springer 2009).
Cell growth depends upon the production of new cells and within each cell exists DNA. DNA contains the hereditary instructions need for each organism to grow and develop. Every parental organism gives the correct amount of DNA to its offspring. Humans give their children twenty-three chromosomes from each of the parents. DNA looks something like a twisted staircase, and when in a condensed form, each DNA molecule is called a chromosome.
Each chromosome has a characteristic set of genes, which code for different features. The human Genome project is investigating which genes are located on which chromosomes. The gene for cystic fibrosis is located on chromosome 7. Cells that contain two sets on chromosomes are called diploid. This is represented as 2n, n=number of chromosomes in one set of chromosomes.
In every cell in the body, there is the nucleus, which is like the brain of the cell. Inside the nucleus are long and complex strands of DNA; these strands of DNA form chromosomes, and genes are sections of DNA within a chromosome. Every cell of the body (except gametes) have 46 chromosomes matched up into 23 pairs, and there are an estimated 20,000-25,000 genes found in the human genome (Human Genome, Science Daily). People inherit 23 chromosomes from their mother and 23 chromosomes from their father, which means we get half of our genes from each parent. These chromosomes are responsible for everyone’s gene expression, which is what gives each person their unique appearance and personality, due to the instructions the DNA codes for.
At the core of every organism lies a particular cellular alphabet which encodes the information for the lifelong development and maintenance of that organism. This genetic library, or genome, of an organism is located in the nucleus and consists of the complete set of DNA segments that are packaged into chromosomes. Each chromosome has one long twisted DNA molecule which is made up of hundreds to thousands of genes that encode genetic information in the specific sequence of the four types of nucleotides: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. The deoxyribonucleic acid of all organisms is composed of the four kinds of nucleotides but the differences in their sequencing is what distinguishes one organism from another. Hence, all life forms are essentially built from the same genetic code: DNA.
All living things on earth are made up of cells that contain DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the genetic material of living things that can be found in the nucleus of the cells (Alcamo, 1996). It contains the genes and the genetic codes that contain the information that are essential for life’s functions which are passed from generations to generations. DNA composes of two polynucleotide chains twisted around each other in the form of a double helix. According to Alcamo (1996), each strand of the DNA double helix can act as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand as it contains a sequence of nucleotides that is exactly complementary to the nucleotide sequence of its partner strand.
Question #101: Genetic coding, expression, transcription and translation Genes are past down from generation to generation and provide genetic coding for each individual and organism. They contain instructions for building proteins (Freeman). DNA and RNA are involved in the genetic up keep of the hereditary information. The hereditary information is then expressed by involving two kinds of products, which include transcription and translation of the genetic coding of DNA or RNA. DNA and RNA are the genetic information that organisms with hold.