The history of Latin America and the larger world was greatly influenced by the legacy that colonialism left behind. Each event that occurred in Latin America is fundamental when attempting to understand the present day reality in Latin America. One of the most prominent legacy of colonization was the social structure that it left emplaced in Latin America. This complex caste system was used for social control and also emphasized the superiority of the Spaniards. One 's social class was tied to the purity of their blood, where Spanish blood was seen as superior and the most powerful while those with African blood were lower in the caste system. Similarly to today, who you were was of utter importance. Your family name, eye color, hair color,
The United States and Brazil each contain “big minorities of indigenous peoples, of blacks (because both had slavery until the second half of the 19th-century), and of immigrants from Italy, Germany and Asia (Chinese predominate in the US; Japanese in Brazil)” (“Comparing Brazil and the United States: American Brothers”). The indigenous population was susceptible to the foreign diseases brought over to the colonies by the European settlers, making it difficult to use them as a labor force. Slavery became the only viable option for the Europeans if they didn’t want to do work themselves. Although both were major slaveholding societies, the difference between the United States of America and Brazil lies in the racial classes within the two states. The United States’ racial classes originate from the deep seeded segregation of people of European descent (Caucasians) being the privileged and ‘superior’ race, while the black population (originally taken from their countries and forced into slavery in the Americas) being the ‘inferior’ and lacking appropriate living standards. African Americans were subjected to legal segregation and discrimination, as well as attacks (including torturing and lynching) by a white supremacy group called the Ku Klux Klan (simply because of their skin color) created serious socioeconomic disadvantages for the black population that remains today. This black versus white mentality in the United States has remained dominant even in 2015, especially since 2014 saw the rise of murdered black Americans by the predominately white police force. While the United States government allowed for legal segregation and has a “historical duality between black and white” (Drogus and Orvis 188), Brazil’s racial classes are much more intricate. Brazil has had a long history of racial intermarriage that has created “seven major categories
Martínez, Elizabeth Sutherland. 1998. De Colores Means all of us: Latina Views for a Multi-Colored Century. U.S.: South End Press.
Wortham Mortimer and Allard aim to summarize their study and findings exploring the Mexican model minority model and the impact of this on a growing Latino community, an area called the New Latin Diaspora. The New Latin Diaspora refers to a region not preciously related to a Latino population but in the past 15 years has become home to a large recently grown and continuing to grow Latino community. The city used in this particular research is called Marshall, (pseudonym) Pennsylvania. Wortham et all write that their research shows areas that fit this description are less likely to be home to negative racism because they are not home to a history of established racial tensions. Instead they offer the opportunity for new relationships and ideas to be formed and it is easier in this environment to form a positive idea of a new ethnic group.
Models for post-revolutionary Latin American government are born of the complex economic and social realities of 17th and 18th century Europe. From the momentum of the Enlightenment came major political rebellions of the elite class against entrenched national monarchies and systems of power. Within this time period of elitist revolt and intensive political restructuring, the fundamental basis for both liberal and conservative ideology was driven deep into Latin American soil. However, as neither ideology sought to fulfill or even recognize the needs or rights of mestizo people under government rule, the initial liberal doctrine pervading Latin American nations perpetuated racism and economic exploitation, and paved the way for all-consuming, cultural wars in the centuries to come.
Racial Formation in the United States In the United States, racial relations have changed drastically over a relatively short time period. In Racial Formation in the United States From the 1960s to the 1990s, authors Michael Omi and Howard Winant present several viewpoints on evolving and differing racial theories while presenting their own findings and theories that have resulted from years of study and observation. They believe the present and past theories on race and racial definitions throughout history, individually, are severely inaccurate when applied to modern day and “[fail] to capture the centrality of race in American politics and American life” (p. 2). They argue that race is much more complex than how it has been presented and offer up their own theories in order to rectify previously believed notions of race.
In America today, we are faced with several different minority groups arriving to the United States. The most common of all minority groups are the Hispanics. America is known for their language being English, but as the year's approach, that language has faded and a new face in English language has taken over, it's called Spanish. We as the people of America have become controversial over this major change, and due to that major bilingualism and political movements that have occurred from the government to the education departments. In this paper, I am going to talk about the four most common Hispanic groups in our country today and the political, social, linguistic, economic, religious, and familial conventions and/or statuses that they face in America today, as the four major Hispanic groups of the nation.
Oboler, Suzanne (1995). "So far from God, so close to the United States": The Roots of Hispanic Homogenization. In M. Romero, P. Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V. Ortiz (Eds.) Challenging Fronteras: Structuring the Latina and Latino Lives in the U.S. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Even at the beginning of the twenty first century no one can argue that concept of race is extremely important in American society. This paper examines how race as an idea has been constructed throughout the history of the United States. By explaining that our history, judicial institutions and culture I argue that Race is a concept which has absolutely no basis in biology or nature. Race has been manufactured as a changing concept through American history by the people with power. According to Hanley Lopez “Race dominates our personal lives.” The power of race determines how we live. If we are free or enslaved. How we look,what we eat, how we are influenced politically and who we choose for our friends. The power of race determines who we are and where we live in a community as well as what we do for work. (Hanley Lopez) Science, politics, laws and culture have created the concept of race and have given its meaning as whatever they want it to be. Race is solely based on opinion, even at birth you are assigned what race you are classified as based on the opinion of the doctor. Race is socially constructed. As a social construction, it functions as a tool of management that maintains the dominance of particular groups and the subordination of others. However, arguably no one seems to know exactly what the word “Race” means.
A post racial society is a society where racism and prejudice no longer exists. Barack Obama is the first African American to be the president of the United States. Some believe that since he was elected, there is no more racism and that we are now living in a post racial society. Although we have a black leader, racism still exists in many ways. While we have a black president, we are not living in post-racial America considering the existence of white privilege, the wage gap, and inequality in education.