Further the chi-square test will be used to determine if there is an association between the level of harmony and the firm-characteristics. The degree of association will be determined by using the Cramer’s V test. Validity of this research weighs on different factors such as (1) the definition of large companies (niche population) and (2) to which extend do the variables represent the presentation and measurement policies of the financial statements (selection is made). Reliability is considered by weighting the factors such as (1) the information is taken from audited financial statements (non bias information) (2) from companies’ websites and the Orbis databank (independent source) (3) collected by me (open to error and bias) and (4) this research is reperformable.
Furthermore, some have understood research as the transferring of facts from one place to another, but the nature of research extend to describing the goal, formulating a theoretical statement, considering the availability of relevant information as well as gathering data (Brynard et al, 2014:4-5). And gathering data involves the collection, organisation and interpretation of data (Brynard et al, 2014:5). 2. Dimensions of research In order to have a better understanding of the concept of research, four dimensions of research that guides the choices one makes about research methods needs to distinguished. 2.1.
Hen-dricks describe quantitativ... ... middle of paper ... ...em or concern, collect data, evaluate data, and create action strategies, share results with other participants and reflect-ing. Action research may use both quantitative and qualitative research to assist the researcher in analyzing their research, as well as providing a variety of ways to work differently in the school setting. Traditional research has broad topic, in contrast to action research that has a specific topic in a specific classroom, school or school district. This paper addressed both traditional and action research, their features and their influence on education. Within the paper there were comparisons between quantitative, qualitative, and action research and how they may be used within the school setting.
mentioned that the mixed method provides an opportunity to bridge the conflict between different philosophical perspectives such as constructivism, pragmatism, postpositivism and transformative perspectives (2011). They stated that this would help in creating dialectal standpoints that help in advancing both objective and subjective knowledge. They illustrated the practical diverse approach of pragmatism where it could highlight the importance of the research question by focusing on the objective and subjective aspects of the research problem. On the other hand, the orienting framework of transformative
Task 3 There are two techniques that can be used to understand and interpret the data in a research proposal. These two technique are quantitative and qualitative analyses; it is important for the researcher to understand the difference between both techniques. Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative research.
The objectives of this essay are to discuss key elements of qualitative and quantitative research designs, including the distinction between them. The distinction between these two research designs will also be compared with scientific and non-scientific approaches. Empirical examples illustrating the usefulness of the two designs are also given. This essay will focus on the key characteristics on aspects of data being used and its collection techniques, how it’s used and analysed as discussed by Popper (1989), Ragin (2000), Flyvbjerg (20010, Janesick (2000), De Vaus (2001), Denzin (2000) and Greenstein, Roberts and Sitas (2003). Discussion Although the key elements of these two types of research design are essentially identical, there are some notable differences in terms of how data is collected and analysed.
Quantitative analysis After knowing about the data we should know about how to analyze the data that are collected. Analysis here means that seeks to understand behavior by using complex mathematical and statistical modeling, measurement and research. Quantitative analysis can be done
Construct validity revises if you operationalized well the ideas of cause and effect when there is a causal relationship in the study. Internal validity is use to determine if the relationship is causal when you can make a claim that the program or treatment in the study caused the outcomes of the study. Conclusion validity is use to determine if there is a relationship between the cause and effect. All four types of validity are important in r... ... middle of paper ... ...in research is valuable and needed. Researchers must dedicate time and effort in understanding the key concepts of research to have reliability and validity.
In this paper, the author will delineate the characteristics between qualitative and quantitative research, as well as their methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a brief glimpse behind each research approach, by determining the strengths and weaknesses of both. The terms “subjective” and “objective” will be viewed in accordance with each research paradigm by considering the role of the observer and addressing how the researcher conducts his or her analysis using these approaches. The author will also describe the preferred approach given to each modality and how each model can be utilized in a study of aggression. Qualitative and Quantitative are two differentiated paradigms of research, which operate under the assumption that measured outcomes, must be proven valid and reliable.
Researchers, who use this approach, analyze previous theoretical claims, questioning preceding findings and conclusions. Critical Research is also referred to as the transformative paradigm. Critical paradigms are used in qualitative research methods that include interviews and group discussions; these are techniques that allow for collaboration that can be carefully deployed in a way that avoid discrimination (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). Critical research analysis and interpretation seeks categories, patterns and themes to result in the data collection. The results are useful to identify ethical integrity and social injustices.