Orem’s Self Care Deficit Theory and its Application in Practice

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One of the theories of nursing is Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, also called the self-care deficit theory. Nursing theories are important for several reasons. The profession is strengthened when knowledge is built on sound theory (Black, 2014). Theory is important for reasoning, thinking, decision-making, and supporting excellence in practice (Black, 2014). Dorothea Orem’s theory is a conceptual model that provides a structure for critical thinking in the nursing process (Black, 2014). A conceptual model provides a comprehensive and holistic perspective of nursing (Black, 2014). Orem published her theory in 1959 and continued to develop her model, eventually formalizing three interrelated theories: theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, and theory of nursing system (Black, 2014). The focus of Orem’s model is the patient’s self-care capacity. The process helps to design a nursing process specific to each patient that will provide for the self-care deficit of the patient (Black, 2014). Self-care deficits exist when the patient has limitations and the self-care requirement is greater than he patient’s capacity (Manzini & Simonetti, 2009).
Orem’s theory is based on self-care requisites, which are basic needs of individuals at all stages of life. The ability or lack of ability of a patient to provide these self-care requisites for himself determines the self-care deficit (Black, 2014). The ability of a patient to provide his own self-care is dependent on factors such as age, gender, current state of health, and sociocultural factors (Caetano & Pagliuca, 2006). The self-care deficit Is then used to design a nursing plan that meets the patients’ needs (Black, 2014). Self-care requisites can be divided into three categories...

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...are and hiv/aids patients: nursing care systematization.
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