Op war

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Direct foreign trade of China with European countries began in the sixteenth century , with economic partners the Portuguese ( 1517 ) who settled in Canton ( southeast China) , in 1550 they founded the city of Macao.
Followed by the Spaniards in the Philippines ( 1565 ) , they founded Manila in 1571. These countries are particularly motivated by a missionary objective.
The Dutch position in Indonesia, Batavia (now Jakarta ) , first settled in Penghu ( 1603) next to Taiwan and Taiwan ( 1624 ) . Russians come neighbors by land.
In 1685 , during the reign of Emperor Kangxi ( 1662-1723 ) , an imperial edict authorizing the opening of all Chinese ports to foreign vessels , the first vessel arrived at Canton in 1689. However , this trade is very limited as they are subject to very strict rules : taxes for foreign traders obligation to go through one intermediary ( the merchant of the emperor ), which collects taxes on behalf of the state. In 1720 , this intermediate is replaced by a collegial body : the Co -hong .
Under the reign of Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796) , trade policy is reversed , it is limited in its scope and intensity . In 1757 , an imperial edict states that the Co -hong now set prices and quantities of goods exchanged, the maritime borders will be closed (except Canton) and that foreigners can not settle where they want to Canton ( not the right to learn Chinese) , the aim being to prevent direct contact.
China is a rather closed on empire itself, as commercially in the field of exchange of ideas and innovations. This is due to strict protectionism applied by the imperial bureaucracy , ideologically supported both by elites , anxious not to undermine the traditional rites very conservative society (or squeamish ) and the p...

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... soil , deposits of opium moved to Huangpu .
In 1809 , an administrative measure will be taken to try to impede traffic : ships unloading in Huangpu must provide a certificate which stated that there was no opium on board. The prevailing corruption among officials does not allow the strict application of these measures.
Nothing seems to decrease or stop a lucrative trade : in 1813 , a case of Indian opium sells 2,400 rupees ( cost 240 rupees) . In 1821 , a new decree announced that Chinese trade is no longer possible to Huangpu , the market moves Lingding where it will grow from 1821 to 1839. The British East India Company (East India Company) decided to circumvent the ban and increases its illegal opium sales in China to 100 tonnes from 1800 to 2 600 tonnes in 1838. British trade in China finally becomes surplus in 1835 , there was 2 million opium smokers in China.

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