The middle of Oedipus the King shows the character Oedipus as the Jungian archetypal hero and sacrificial scapegoat. In order to understand Jung's theory of archetypes, the reader must first have an understanding of the reasoning behind them. Carl G. Jung explains the conscious mind by dividing it into three different psyches: the ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. The ego is simply Jung's interpretation of the conscious mind. The personal unconscious is anything that is not presently conscious, but can be.
According to The Critical Tradition: Classic Texts and Contemporary Trends, Jung's hypothesis was that direct influence was unnecessary, that the similar mythologies were merely differing manifestations of structures deep in the human unconscious. These structures Jung termed archetypes; they manifest themselves not only in myth and in dreams but in the finished art of cultures like our own in the form of symbols. (504-505) Now, for the next question, where do archetypes come from? Jung believed that human beings were born with these models which makeup our imagination and make it categorically human. Jung believed that these archetypes were derived from the collective unconscious through which, "the spirit of the whole human species manifests itself" (Richter 504).
How are people “put together,” how do they “work,” and how do they “fall apart.” The psychodynamic theory emphasizes personality as primarily unconscious. Sigmund Freud thought everything derived from the human sex drive. Since the psychodynamic theories diverged from Freud’s psychoanalytic version, they share some common principles: • Personality is determined both by current experiences and, as the original psychoanalytic theory proposed, by early life experiences • We mentally transform our experiences, giving them meaning that shapers our personality • The mind is not all consciousness; unconscious motives lie behind some of our puzzling behavior (King). Alongside Freud there was Karen Horney and Carol Jung. Horney rejected the classical psychodynamic concept.
Unconscious Desire One of the facets of psychoanalytic theory is the role of the unconscious and the conscious. For many psychoanalytic theorists, the conscious observes and records external reality. They claim that the conscious is the basis of reason and analytical thought while the unconscious merely accumulates and retains our memories. Therefore, many theorists believed that the conscious was solely accountable for our behavior and actions (Bressler 121). However, Freud challenged this notion by claiming that the unconscious not only stores memories but also includes our suppressed and unresolved conflicts.
Sigmund Freud’s main contribution to this new field of studying personality was in the area of the understanding the unconscious, an aspect of the mind to which, he claimed, we did not have ready access to, but was the source of our actions and behavior. Freud believed the human mind was divided into three parts: the id, ego, and super-ego. The id is man’s (generic meaning, referring to both sexes) instinctual, primitive, and hedonistic urges for pure pleasure, which the id was bent on experiencing, without regard to any consequences. The super-ego is man’s senses of morality, first brought on by experiences with authoritative figures and parents, which basically hold ideas of what is right and wrong, and is almost a direct paradox to the id. The ego, which can be seen as the mediator between the id and the super-ego, takes into account the activities of the external world, and attempts to invoke some balance among all three parts of the mind, with failure resulting in neurosis of some kind.
"The division of the psychical into what is conscious and what is unconscious is the fundamental premise of psycho-analysis; and it alone makes it possible for psycho-analysis to understand the pathological processes in mental life..." (Freud, The Ego and the Id, 3). To say it another way, psycho-analysis cannot situate the essence of the psychial in consciousness, but is mandated to comply consciousness as a quality of the pyschial, which may be present (Freud, The Ego and the ID, 3). "...that what we call our ego behaves essentially passively in life, and that, as he expresses it, we are 'lived' by unknown and uncontrollable forces," (Groddeck, quoted from Gay, 635). Many, if not all of us have had impressions of the same, even though they may not have overwhelmed us to the isolation of all others, and we need to feel no hesitation in finding a place for Groddeck's discovery in the field of science. To take it into account by naming the entity which begins in the perception system.
Winesburg, Ohio Text and Criticism. Ed. John H. Ferres. New York : The Viking Press, 1966. 432-443.
Introduction Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is widely regarded as the father of modern psychoanalysis. His (controversial) concepts of repression, the unconscious, infantile sexuality and the tripartite structure of the mind were a fundamental departure from the understanding of the human mind that existed in his time. Most contemporary schools of psychoanalysis can trace their basic roots to Freudian psychoanalysis. (Thornton, 2014) Michel Foucault (1926-1984) is commonly considered a postmodern thinker or a poststructuralist. He was an independent thinker who re-examined some of modernity’s most cherished principles; He critiqued the “subject as a foundation of epistemology
Modern psychology was built upon the foundations laid out by Sigmund Freud, and continued by colleagues that broke away from his theories, which they believed were limited by his fixation on sexual urges. Freud outlined new methods for understanding human behavior and his development of psychoanalysis blazed the trail for other psychologists providing the building blocks for the development of many different psychological theories. The evolution of modern psychology evolved from Freud’s deterministic theories and was further developed by his colleague Alfred Adler, who added a social component to the understanding of human behavior. Adler fell back on his own tragic experience as a child to formulate the idea that humans are driven not