Malaria Introduction to Malaria Malaria is a deadly disease, responsible for 300,000,000 malaria-infected people and over a million deaths annually. It is caused by malaria parasites that have infected mosquitoes, so the disease is transferred into a person’s blood when the mosquito bites us. Malaria-diseased people experience fevers and chills that lingers every few days. The diagnosis of malaria is identified in their blood along with the symptoms. Malaria requires different treatment for mild cases or more severe ones, like mild circumstances usually need an oral medication, but serious conditions need a hospital visit.
Malaria is an infectious disease that kills close to a million children every year (Miller, Ackerman, Su, & Wellems, 2013). Although there are several different species of malaria this paper is going to be addressing Plasmodium falciparum, the most fatal of the species. The parasitic infection of P. falciparum can lead to many negative effects including death. This paper will explore the ways in which the disease in contracted, the risk factors as well as the pathogenesis of the parasite and ultimately the potential treatment options based on the progression of the disease process. Causative Agent, Mode of Transmission and Risk Factors P. falciparum is a protozoan parasite that once it has infected its human host causes the disease known as Malaria (Lehne, 2013, p.1238).
Malaria: Treatment and Prevention Malaria treatment is different for different patients. For severe cases, patients get blood transfusions. Others get various drugs to help get rid of the parasite. Many of these drugs are also used for prevention. Mosquito eradication and nets are also ways of preventing malaria.
Transmission and symptoms of Malaria Malaria is a vector-borne disease that is spread by the bite of a mosquito. According to National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2014) “In 2013, 97 countries had ongoing malaria transmission, placing 3.4 billion people at risk for the disease. And in a globally connected world, even people living in the United States can be at risk. In 2011, nearly 2,000 people in this country were diagnosed with malaria—the highest number since 1971” (para. 2).
Plasmodium falciparum, the leading cause of the most severe cases of malaria, has been the topic of these studies. Researchers have found that the ABO blood group antigens may be of significance to susceptibility and resistance in individuals. With this newfound knowledge, the development of new vaccines or drugs can be researched to end the increasing drug resistance to current therapeutics on the market. P. falciparum is widely transmitted through the Anopheles mosquito bite as a sporozoite. Once inside it begins a vicious life cycle causing acute hemolytic anemia, weakness and fatigue, cyclic fever, other organ issues: lungs and kidneys, even death.
This is what happens to the people of sub-Saharan Africa. “Ninety percent of all malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa” (“Malaria Statistics”). More than half of those deaths are of children under the age of five. Every minute, a child in sub-Saharan Africa dies due to malaria. (“Malaria Statistics”).
Though DDT treatments are still an effective way to stop the spread of malaria, some mosquitos have become resistant to the compound and therefore more methods of prevention must be utilized. WWW Sources 1)Malaria Foundation International http://www.malaria.org/ 2)Malaria Fact Sheet http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/en/ 3)Division of Parasitic Diseases - Malaria http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/malaria/default.htm 4)Malaria in Southern Africa http://www.malaria.org.za/ 5)Roll Back Malaria http://mosquito.who.int/
For example, Dr. D. Lalloo is working on a project investing the effects of malaria in adolescents. Professor D. H. Molyneux is doing a research project on the effects of malaria on the HIV virus. Professor M. E. Molyneux is working on a project looking at diseases connected with malaria. There are also many other research projects investigating other aspects of malaria, such as a vaccine for this deadly disease. While malaria is a curable disease if noticed early enough, there are still hundreds and hundreds of deaths due to malaria every year.
Through a Mosquito, it enters the bloodstream and after 2 weeks of incubating, it multiplies and takes over red blood cells. Because of its ability to evolve and widespread use of the best drug used to fight it, it is becoming drug-resistant. "The population structure of the resistant parasites in the region is 'strikingly different' to other countries." "It is as if there are different ethnic groups of artemisinin-resistant parasites inhabiting in the same region." Increased efforts are needed to prevent the malaria from spreading around the world.
P.Ovale, this causes tertian (recurs every second day) malaria in humans. This species is very closely related to both plasmodium falciparum and P.Vivax. P.Ovale has a quite inadequate dispersal. General Life Cycle of the Malaria Parasite: • The female Anopheles mosquito which transmits the malaria parasites feed on the person when the mosquito has pierc... ... middle of paper ... ... to simply stop it from being transported around the body where it will lead to it processing itself to critical stage where it could lead to death, which is the whole reason of why it should be diagnosed and treated by a doctor as soon as possible to eradicate the possibilities of complications and death. Works Cited Carter, Mendis.