Malaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first infectious diseases to be treated successfully with a drug, scientist are still looking for a cure or at least a vaccination today (Cann, 1996). Though many people are aware that malaria is a disease, they are unaware that it is life threatening, kills over a million people each year, and is a very elusive target for antimalarial drugs (Treatment of Malaria, 1996).
The Impacts of Malaria Approximately 300 million people are affected worldwide by malaria and between 1 and 1.5 million people die from it every year. Malaria is now mainly confined to Africa, Asia and Latin America having previously been widespread across the world. The problems of controlling malaria in these countries are heightened due to insufficient health structures and poor socioeconomic conditions. The situation has become more complicated over the last few years with the increase in resistance to the drugs normally used to combat the parasite that causes the disease. Malaria is a serious, parasitic infection that is spread by the bite of certain mosquitoes.
Places near the equator with a warm, subtropical climate are most susceptible to malaria endemics. More than half of the cases of malaria occur in sub-Saharan Africa. It was only recently that developments have been made to research the eradication of the disease on a global scale. Malaria, Italian for ?bad air?, is an infectious disease which for nearly 4,000 years has terrorized mankind in many parts of the world. It has greatly influenced human populations and human history, and even today, malaria is a leading cause of disease and death in the world with over one million deaths every year (Sherman 91).
This deadly and drug-resistant disease is malaria. The story of drug-resistant malaria in Cambodia is significant because people in other countries could be affected and must be aware of the fact that it is becoming immune to the most powerful drugs used to fight it. The reasons why Western Cambodia is a big place for drug-resistance are unknown. The falciparith parasite that lies in Cambodia is one of the four types of malaria and is the most deadly. Through a Mosquito, it enters the bloodstream and after 2 weeks of incubating, it multiplies and takes over red blood cells.
Parasitology is the study of parasites that causes various diseases in the tropics, subtropics and temperate climate areas. These organisms live outside of the host (Ectoparasites) and also within the host which are classified as Endoparasites. For instance, malarial parasites rely on survival within the host for their nourishment. Malaria causes the most deaths throughout the world. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that there are 660,000 people that die each year from malaria, mostly in young children of Africa (CDC, 2014).
The problem Scientists discovered that a single-celled parasite known, as plasmodium was the cause of malaria. Throughout the tropical regions of the world, malaria is endemic. Malaria has caused at least more than 350 million severe illnesses and a minimum of 100 million deaths each year . Children below the age of 5 make up a massive proportion of deaths every year, as they are prone to infection. 90% of malaria-associated death occurred in Africa.
Malaria Introduction to Malaria Malaria is a deadly disease, responsible for 300,000,000 malaria-infected people and over a million deaths annually. It is caused by malaria parasites that have infected mosquitoes, so the disease is transferred into a person’s blood when the mosquito bites us. Malaria-diseased people experience fevers and chills that lingers every few days. The diagnosis of malaria is identified in their blood along with the symptoms. Malaria requires different treatment for mild cases or more severe ones, like mild circumstances usually need an oral medication, but serious conditions need a hospital visit.
Drug and Vaccine Development Drugs designed to treat malaria are available on a very limited basis. Because of increasing resistance to drugs in many parts of the world, adequate treatment of malaria is becoming increasingly difficult. Although a few new drugs have appeared in the last 20 years, they are not economically available to many people who need them. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the search for a malaria vaccine. An effective vaccine would create a powerful addition to malaria control.
It is caused by four species of parasitic protozoa that infect human red blood cells. Four different types of these protozoa are known: protozoa falciparum, protozoa vivax, protozoa ovale, and protozoa malariae. Protozoa falciparum is the most lethal of the four and accounts for the majority of infections. Malaria parasites are not able to survive unless they have both a mosquito and human host, however the disease cannot be hosted by any kind of mosquito, only those of the genus "anopheles". Malaria is spread when the mosquito picks up the parasites from the blood of an infected human when it feeds.
Malaria Global Distribution Malaria has been existing since the ancient time, but until late 1800s, people discovered that mosquitoes transmit malaria. Without Anopheles, Plasmodium cannot complete their growth and cannot infect human by itself. Because Anopheles mosquitoes are the carrier of malaria parasites basically, people who live in the countries where Anopheles presents are at risk for malaria. Packard, in his book, states that malaria is a tropical disease. Sadly, that malaria occurs in the tropical countries which are mostly developing countries such as: Africa, Asia, South America.