An individual goes through many stages in life, when going from an infancy to adulthood. But the most complex stage is adolescence, where an individual has to identify him or herself as a person to be able to transition to adulthood. Adolescence is a stage in life where teens are trying to figure out who they are, while exposing themselves to risky behaviors. Erikson's theory of identity versus role confusion tries to explain that teens explore the world to try to identify what kind of person they want to be. Many local teens local go to the Laurel Mall on Friday nights so I took the opportunity to observe their cognition, language, and socialization. Adolescence is a time period where teens try to identify themselves as an individual. Adolescence is a stage where teens explore new things while making mistakes. Teens have a moratorium period where they are liberal of responsibility, allowing them to experience different roles. According to Erickson, adolescents explore their identity through things they would like to pursue, such as, religion, career, and sexual identity …show more content…
Adolescents at the Laurel Mall were making irrational behaviors. For example, a kid decided to sit on the floor and start yelling, while his friend was flicking his head. According to the Human Development book, teens gray matter decreases, which is the part of the brain that is made up of cell bodies, while the teens white matter increases, which is made up of many axons (Sigelman). This change in a teen’s brain is believed to make teens more inclined to make irrational decisions, because their brains react to expecting greater reward before it is able to think rationally. Teens at the mall were acting foolish in order to get attention and expect a reward such as a reaction from their friends. This explains why teens act in risky behaviors that most adults would not
The psychosocial stage represented by adolescence, as we can see from Erikson’s model, is the resolution of the conflicts raised by the profusion of role changes in adolescent life. Healthy resolution of these conflicts would mean that the person would be able to adjust to the changing role demands of the period of adolescence while still retaining a strong sense of their own lasting personal identity. If the increasing role demands of adolescence placed too great a stress on the individual, then identity diffusion would result. This means that the individual would become confused about who they were, in view of all the different roles which they seem to be acting
Lastly, we look at identity without knowing it adolescents are searching for the answers to the question, “who am I?”. Although this is an important part of development for this stage it didn’t just being in this stage nor do adolescents have the capability to figure it all out. While growing up children are pushed one way or another by parents and peers some are pushed towards academics while others athletics. But how influential are parents and peers?
Biological influences combined with societal and social expectations contribute to how well people learn to adapt to their environments (2013). According to Erikson, there are eight stages of development. Within these states, there are different psychological, emotional and cognitive tasks. In order to adjust, individuals must learn to develop these tasks. During adolescence, Erikson states that each person needs to navigate through the development task of ‘‘Identity vs. Identity confusion ’’ (2013). He defined this task by stating that adolescent children must learn to develop a sense of self and establish independence. Prior to this stage of development, a person’s parents largely influence their identity. In this stage the adolescent children begin to explore and develop their identity outside of their parents’ influence (Hill, Bromell, Tyson, & Flint, 2007). Adolescents are generally more egocentric at this stage and have an increased sense of self-consciousness. They also have a strong desire to conform to peer influence and develop concerns regarding their appearance. They develop concern about their level of competence in relation to their peer group as well. As peer influence increases, during this stage, parental influence decreases (Ashford & LeCroy, 2013; Hill et. al, 2007). Conflict generally increases between parent and child at this stage of development (2007).
Jones, Cheryl. "Identity and Adolescents: How Adults Can Help." NCYL. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. . fifth
Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory is comprised of eight developmental stages ranging throughout the lifespan from infancy to adulthood (Boyd, 2015). However, Erikson puts significant emphasis on the adolescent stage, feeling it is a crucial period for developing an individual’s identity (McLeod, 2013). Erikson maintains that the task of adolescence is to resolve this identity crisis (Rageliene, 2016). Erikson’s theory is hierarchical, meaning that later stages are based on the outcomes of earlier stages, therefor it is rather complex (Markstrom, 1998). During each of these stages, an
During this stage, Erikson believes that the individual’s successful identity formation relies on social, cognitive and physical maturation (Pittman, Keiley, Kerpelman, & Vaughn, 2011). The individual tries out different roles for who they see in themselves and who they portray to others, eventually committing to their own personal role and occupational choice. Pittman et al. (2011) describe the identity formation as “consisting of decisions, investments, and commitments tied to current and future roles, goals, and relationships.” Additional considerations for identity formation include the context of the culture which is available to the adolescent during this time. After successful resolution of this stage during adolescence, individuals will typically progress into Erikson’s Intimacy versus Isolation stage during young
According to Erikson’s psychosocial development theory, a major task occurs during adolescence is the resolution of identity crisis. At this stage, adolescents exhibit greater social consciousness and actively seek for a sense of identity. However, the process of identity exploration can be difficult for most teenagers. Some may experience peer pressure and conflicts with friends, while others may suffer from social exclusion (Hoffnung et al., 2016, p. 393). Additionally, teenagers are more inclined to test the social boundaries and often end up in risk-taking behaviours such as smoking, alcohol drinking and sexual activities. The engagement of risk-taking behaviours not only leads to immediate health consequences but could also possibly persist into adulthood (Sales & Irwin Jr,
Adolescence is a period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity. The adolescent is no longer a child, but they haven’t yet reached adulthood. Adolescence is considered people between the ages of 13 and 21. Puberty is the physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction. Puberty is important to adolescence because when a child hits puberty, that’s when the child is becoming an adolescent. Puberty is a big part of an adolescent’s life.
Transition and change are some of the most difficult obstacles for people to overcome. It is no surprise that adolescence, defined as the transition from childhood to adulthood, is full of obstacles (Feldman, 2012). During this time period, adolescents are neither adults nor children; they do not appear to belong in any stable group. However uncomfortable this may seem, it is also a fitting definition. For during the adolescent stage, adolescents face puberty, sexual curiosity, self-esteem issues, and doubts about their future (Feldman, 2012). Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson aptly argued that adolescents pass through the identity-versus-identity-confusion stage in which teenagers search for defining and unique characteristics about themselves (Feldman, 2012). When a teenager struggles with this stage, a crisis emerges in which they are unable to find an appropriate role in life, often acting out or pursuing dangerous behaviors (Feldman, 2012).
Adolescence is a period of transition between the ages of 13 – 19, after childhood but before adulthood. Adolescence can be a difficult period in a teenager's life. Many teenagers do not know how to react or how to adapt to all of the physical, social, and psychological changes that occur during this period. Some adolescents pass through this period without problem, while for others, it is a period of torture, discomfort, and anxiety. With all the biological and social pressures that occur during adolescence, many teens fail to assume their identity. Sometimes family and society does not help to make this task easier. Challenges teenagers face due to biology and society are body image, hormonal changes, social and parental pressures, family problems, school pressures, alcohol, drug abuse, homosexuality, and suicide.
Adolescence is a time of challenge and change for both teens and parents. Teens are at a stage in life where they face a multitude of pressing decisions -- including those about friends, careers, sex, smoking, drinking, drugs and parental values. At the same time, they are confronted with profound physical, social and emotional changes.
Adolescence refers to the transition period experienced by children that occur between childhood and adulthood (Shefer, 2011). Identity is first confronted in adolescence between the ages 12 – 19 years old, because of physical and hormonal changes in the body. It is also due to the introduction of formal operations in cognitive development and societal expectation that this contributes to an individual’s identity to be explored and established (McAdams, 2009). The forces within and outside (family, community) the individual that promote identity development usually create a sense of tension. The basic task is, in Erikson’s terms, “fidelity or truthfulness and consistency to one’s core self or faith in one’s ideology” (Fleming, 2004: 9), in a nutshell: "Who am I and where am I
Indeed, adolescent may be defined as the period within the life span when most of a person’s biological, cognitive, psychological and social characteristics are changing from what is typically considered child-like to what is considered adult-like (Learner and Spainer, 1980). This period is a dramatic challenge for any adolescent, which requires adjustment to change one’s own self, in the family, and in the peer group. Contemporary society presents adolescents with institutional changes as well. Among young adolescents, school setting is changed; involving a transition from elementary school to either junior high school or middle school; and late adolescence is accompanied by transition from high school to the worlds of work, University or childrearing. An adolescent experiences it all ranging from excitement and of anxiety, happiness and troubles, discovery and bewilderment, and breaks with the past and yet links with the future (Eya,
Adolescence is defined as “the developmental period of transition between childhood to adulthood that involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes; beginning around the age of 10 to 13 and ends in the late teens.” (Santrock 16) As I reflect on my younger years I remember having many different emotional issues; many of them due to the fact that I moved around a great deal until I was about 12 years of age. I always felt misunderstood by my peers and adults. However, growing up in the 80’s was not all bad; it was a very popular culture. While reading chapter one and two I was able to put some of my feelings and actions in perspective.
In Erikson’s Identity vs. Role Confusion stage, I thought, “Who am I?” countless times like many other adolescents. I occupied much of my time trying to construct a firm identity of myself, which I now realized did more harm than good. Letting myself explore different interests would have helped me find my identity than me trying to fake some firm identity.