Individual & Society: Stalin ~ Hitler ~ Mussolini
The relationship between the individual and society in Europe in the early 20th century, as it pertained to Fascism, Nazism, and Totalitarianism, was based primarily on the fact that there was no individual in the eyes of the state. Individual liberties and expressions were eliminated in order to improve the welfare of the country. Leaders taught conventional ideals and murdered enemies, so as to create one state, composed of individuals whose lives were involuntarily centered around the creation of that State.
In 1922, Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Russian Communist party, suffered the first of many strokes that would relieve him of his authority. After leading the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, Lenin had established Communism to reinstate order in the crumbling Russia and protect the rights of the oppressed proletariat. He believed that, only in a Communist society, "'the state ceases to exist,' and 'it becomes possible to speak of freedom.'"1 Lenin stood by the idea that Communism would "render the state absolutely unnecessary" because "no one in the sense of a class" would be suppressed.2
Lenin's successor, Josef Stalin, took the elimination of proletarian suppression to extremes. Stalin and Leon Trotsky-who was with Lenin in forming the Russian Revolution and led the Red Army in the Civil War of 1918-vied for leadership of the Communist party after Lenin's stroke. Although Trotsky seemed to be the inevitable successor, Stalin's status as general secretary of the Communist party gave him "control over the administrative levers of the party" and "allowed him to eliminate all rivals."3 Stalin relieved Trotsky of his authority in the Communist party and exiled him t...
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...e Hall, 1996), 263.
2. Ibid., p. 264.
3. Ibid., p. 266.
4. Ibid., p. 267.
5. Ibid., p. 272.
7. Ibid., p. 279.
9. Ibid., p. 283.
10. Ibid., p. 284.
11. Donald Kagan, et al, The Western Heritage, Brief Edition, Volume II, Since 1715
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), 644.
12. Ibid., p. 646.
13. Perry M. Rogers, Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History.
(Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996), 300-301.
14. Ibid., p. 301.
17. Donald Kagan, et al, The Western Heritage, Brief Edition, Volume II, Since 1715
(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), 653.
18. Perry M. Rogers, Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History.
(Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996), 316.
19. Ibid., p. 328.
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Vladmir Lenin (1870-1924) founded the communist party in Russia and the world’s first communist dictatorship. He believed in Karl Marx’s theories that government is affected by underlying economic forces. Lenin’s dictatorship resembles that of Mustapha Mond for both of them controlled their people for the nation to prosper.
After Vladimir Lenin, a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist, died, Stalin outmaneuvered his rivals and won the control of the Communist Party. In the tardy 1920’s he became dictator of the Soviet Cumulation. Then he wanted to industrialize the country because at the time the economic was farming. Millions of farmers reluctant to be apart of Stalin’s orders and were killed as penalization. The civilization led a widespread famine across the Soviet Coalescence and killed millions of people. Stalin wanted to kill anyone who opposed him of his orders. He engendered an army of secret police, and inspirited citizens to spy on others which had many people killed or sent to a labor camp. Virtually everyone around Stalin was considered a threat to him, even the Communist Party, the military, and components of the Soviet Coalescence society, s...
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After the death of Lenin, his chief lieutenant Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin fought for control of the country. Stalin was able to win out over Trotsky and gain control of the Russian government. He felt that Lenin and Trotsky’s socialistic ideas were flawed in that they were to wait for other countries to revolt and become socialistic as well. Staling believed that a single country could make socialism .
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Lenin’s pragmatic leadership was the most considerable factor in helping to fortify Bolshevik power. His willingness to take power in October/November 1917 and the successes of the move, through his right-hand man, Trotsky, was critical as it helped give him unquestioned authority within the party despite members of the Central Committee i.e. Zinoviev and Kamenev who suggested industrialisation needed to occur first. This highlighted Lenin’s communist ideology in practice which was essential to the Bolsheviks maintaining power. Following the failure of the Provisional Government, Lenin recognised that it was the Bolshevik’s priority to legitimise their government. As a result, issues of ‘Peace, Bread and Land’ were addressed through the issuing of a number of decrees in late 1917 including decrees on land, peace, Workers’ Rights as well as reforms to marriage and religion. ...
According to most historians, “history is told by the victors”, which would explain why most people equate communism with Vladimir Lenin. He was the backbone of Russia’s communist revolution, and the first leader of history’s largest communist government. It is not known, or discussed by most, that Lenin made many reforms to the original ideals possessed by many communists during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He revised Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles’ theories to fit the so-called ‘backwardness’ of the Russian Empire. Lenin’s reforms were necessary to carry out a socialist revolution in Russia, and the contributions he made drastically changed the course of history. It can be assumed that, the Soviet Union would not have been as powerful if it was not for Lenin’s initial advocacy of violence and tight organization.