Describe the religious policies of England and France from 1603 to 1715. Why do you think rulers feared religious toleration so much? When discussing why the rulers feared religious toleration and how their fears affected what religious policies were enforced, one must first look at what events transpired through the years to get a full understanding of the word “stubbornness.” During the early years, the English church was dividing into a conservative camp that wanted to retain the religious ceremonies and the hierarchy of the church and a radical, Calvinist camp called Puritans who wanted to "purify" the church of everything not contained in the Old and New Testaments. The Puritans demanded that the English church abandon the elaborate ceremonies and flatten the hierarchy of the church into something more closely resembling the voluntary associations of the Calvinist church. King James, however, would have none of the Puritan argument and declared, in 1604, that he was fully in the camp of the religious conservatives.
Other factors that aided the movement were the invention of printing, the rise of commerce and a middle class, and political conflicts between German princes and the Holy Roman emperor. The Reformation began suddenly when Martin LUTHER posted 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg on October 31, 1517. Open attack on the doctrines and authority of the church followed and led to Luther's breach with the church (1520), which the Diet of Worms (1521) failed to heal. His doctrine was of justification by faith alone instead of by sacraments, good works, and meditation, and it placed a person in direct communication with God. Luther's insistence on reading the Bible placed on the individual a greater responsibility for his own salvation.
Uniquely, Martin Luther had been the stimulus of the Protestant reformation. The reformation was a response to the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church, and it had transpired during the 16th century. The Reformations was significant because he was the downfall of the Corrupt Roman Catholic Church and had formed a new form of Christianity. The works of few had roused the actions of many. The books of John Calvin and Desiderius Erasmus were very influential.
The English Civil war was partially a religious conflict, which brought Church and State against Parliament. Under the reign of James I, England saw the rise in Protestants dissenters. Groups like Barrowists, Puritans, Fifth Monarchists, Quakers, and many more demanded for more religious reform. They felt that the Church of England’s liturgy was too Catholic for a Protestant church. James VI and I accepted the more moderated Puritans and other dissenters, and he was able to keep his kingdom in peace.
This created fear amongst European countries as England was ruled all under one ruler. The Council of Trent was outwardly Machiavellian by being prepared for the Protestant Reformation and maintaining its political gain. With rewriting the Church doctrine the Council answered the Protestant’s criticism which led to the Vatican having more power of Europe. Overall, Machiavelli had an important impact to the way government was seen in the 16th and 17th century till today where his concepts apply to the modern day government.
Many thought Laud’s plan was where he went very wrong. One aspect of Archbishop Laud’s plan was to better establish the church and clergy of England, Laud’s downfall was his desire to promote churchmen. Laud wanted to see churchmen back in political power. To many people during this time, the promotion of churchmen seemed to contradict the triumph the Protestant community had over the clergy. This control is what the English Reformation was... ... middle of paper ... ...tury religion and politics and since his death has figured prominently in historians explanations for the breakdown of consensus and the coming of civil war.”(Mason, 1095) Archbishop made a lot of enemies and was hated by many during his time of influence.
Luther’s defiance inspired other people to create Protestant denominations. His 95 Theses had started a religious revolution. His protest for reform had inspired others to demand religious change. His openness and ideas for change encouraged reformers such John Calvin, who provided Protestantism 's theological underpinnings. Whilst there were some negative effects of Luther’s teachings, such as the St Bartholomew’s day massacre (1572) where mobs of Catholics began a general massacre of Huguenot Protestants, Catholicism and Protestantism spread throughout Europe and America.
Martin Luther thought that it was necessary to stand up for something he believed to be wrong and needed to be changed. Martin Luther accused the Roman Catholic Church of misrepresenting religion to advance its own gain and not to teach how to live by faith through Jesus Christ. Martin Luther wanted to exercise his freedom of speech and religion; therefore, he launched the Protestant Reformation, which intended to change the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and effecting revolutions to follow. Since the Protestant Reformation, revolutions have happened throughout history producing major changes. Similar to Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation, a political protest by American supporter challenging the British authority initiated the American Revolution.
Several principles of reasoning incited Martin Luther and his followers to surpass the credence that salvation was only feasible from the pope and instead adopt the radical idea that it was achievable without the pope. The sources delve into the motives as to why Martin Luther detested the Catholic church; the Reformation began because there was an intense split in Catholic society. Protestantism had less importance on the physical presence of a figurehead and less supremacy from the preacher, thus distinct from the pope during the 16th century. With the increase in Protestantism, the Catholic Church shifted and began to weaken. One must deliberate the opinions of Marin Luther to comprehend his reasoning for revolutionizing the doctrine of Catholicism.
The Puritans in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the mid-1600s placed a large emphasis on the road to salvation. According to them, “sanctification” was evidence of “justification,” meaning Godly behavior could be seen as a sign of eternal salvation. Another religious dissenter, Anne Hutchinson, disagreed. Hutchinson was an Antinomian, meaning she endorsed “the principles of divine omnipotence and human helplessness.” The Puritans became extremely alarmed and brought Hutchinson to court in 1638 in order to suppress her beliefs as soon as possible. Convicting Hutchinson of heresy proved to be very difficult as the court could not elicit a chargeable confession from her.