For the research that will be conducted, poverty will be measured through federal programs from the Great Society introduced by President Lyndon Johnson, which is a series of social programs established to reduce or eliminate poverty in urban environments. The federal programs that will be highlighted from the Great Society will be The Department of Housing (HUD), The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). A brief description of these programs includes HUD, which deals with developing the housing in urban area for low-income individuals, The Economic Opportunity Act was established to help the improvement of education, while TANF is explained as a financial assistance to help individuals pay for food, shelter, utilities, and other expenses. Lastly, SNAP is defined as a food voucher issued by the government to individuals with low income. However, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 11.5 percent of African Americans reside in government housing that was created through HUD while 13.6 percent received TANF.
Housing Microfinance “Inadequate sanitation and housing threaten the lives and health of some 600 million urban dwellers world-wide.” – CGAP (Bonnie Brusky) This research paper will concentrate on the innovation of housing microfinance. Housing microfinance is helping to give loans to individuals that are suffering from poor infrastructure. This type of microfinance will aid in increasing the level of living standards. This paper will analyze the current organizations that deal with housing microfinance and it will implement new ways that it can be implemented. Housing microfinance will be evaluated on the impact it has had to date and the future implications of this innovation at a local, national, and international level.
Arguments in Favor of a Property Tax Break Habitat for Humanity homeownership is income based; therefore, any future property tax assessments should c... ... middle of paper ... ...Finally, Habitat for Humanity should reconsider their mortgage calculations and provide extensive counseling on the affects of property taxes on home mortgages. References Netzer, D. (1973). The incidence of the property tax revisited. National Tax Journal, 26(4), 515-535.
Inequalities pay. Available: http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/sociology/research/publications/papers/walby-weupayandproductivity.pdf. Last accessed essex. (2009). Segregation.
Mortgages, Risk, and Homeownership among Low- and Moderate-Income Families. The American Economic Review. American Economic Association. (May 2008). p. 310-314 .
They came up with something called mixed-methods. Mixed-methods are used in order to address whether residents believe nonprofit organizations can play a legitimate representation. After doing that they discovered that the residents believed nonprofit organizations would make good representatives. In this article, John Quigley and Steven Raphael, professors at the University of California, concludes that changes in the institutionalization of the mentally ill, poverty, and increases in drug use and alcohol use have generally been believed that it made an increase of homelessness in the United States. According to the authors, this article gives an inclusive test of the different hypothesis that variations in homelessness appear from altered circumstances in the housing market and income distribution.
In the study ... ... middle of paper ... ...Kathryn and Kissane, Rebecca Joyce. 2010. “Poverty and the American Family: A decade in review.” Journal of Marriage and Family 72(3):460-79. Hopkins, Daniel J. 2009.
Department of Sociology, University of Cincinnatti. Yang, Philip Q. and Kavitha Koshy 2012. “Trends in White’s Perceived Black-White Residential Integration, 1972-2008.” The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology. 4(1)6
Family functioning and income: Does low-income status impact family functioning? The Family Journal, 21(3), 297-305. Comeau, J. (2012). Race/Ethnicity and family contact: Toward a behavioral measure of familialism.
Community development block grants were established; communities would need to compete for these grants and could be used for different housing and community improvements. Section 8 was established as well. This changed the subsidies to enable the federal government to pay the difference between fair market rent and 30 percent of the resident’s income. It could be applied to new or existing privately owned housing; in order to be eligible, residents had to be “low income” or make less than 80 percent of the median income according to family size. To improve the attractiveness of Section 8 to construction companies and banks, the Tandem arrangement was created in 1974.