Higher Education

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Adequate student engagement through appropriate learning environments and supporting student to succeed in gaining higher education is the fundamental requirement of every educational institution, but the quality of American higher education since the growth of student campuses is questionable. During the 20th century, national reports were raising the issue of providing non-individual and passive environments on campuses which could not assist students in learning (Kezar & Kinzie, 2006). Furthermore, the educational institutions failed to assist in social or academic integration of transfer or international students, or promote diversity among international students and American students. Without a proper setting that encourages learning and development, the future of both students as individuals and the academic community is uncertain, so a collaborative system between professors and students combined with promoting collaboration among students from different backgrounds is essential in creating solid fundamentals where students can gain higher education and engage in personal development.

Higher institutions should promote both higher intellectual and personal improvement among the students because one-sided development does not ensure a bright future for the academic community. However, several findings confirm that the system failed to display interest in promoting and valuing student integration and development (Zhao, Kuh, & Carini, 2005; Townsend & Wilson, 2006). Other researchers have aimed to establish the correlations among students from different areas of study to examine individual differences that influence student engagement (Ball & Perry, 2011). Research by Ball and Perry (2011) indicates that cognitive difference...

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...006), so inadequate support in academic and social integration seem to be the key issue which could implicate international student engagement and development. Furthermore, current research has shown that both student-related variables (Ball & Perry, 2011) and college related variables (Kezar & Kinzie, 2006) influence the quality of higher level education. Student engagement is clearly not a one-sided responsibility because interest from both students and educational institutions is required for effective collaboration in creating an active, supportive, and engaging environment. Future research could focus on cross-cultural studies to determine behavioral and cognitive characteristics of students from different cultural backgrounds to understand which educational approaches would prove the most effective in encouraging their socialization, learning, and development.

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