One factor prevalent in our nation’s hospitals which, although under-represented by the media, is significantly detrimental to the advancement of the United States healthcare system is Hospital/Healthcare Associated Infections, or HAIs. These infections were first identified as a serious threat to patient safety during the 1930s. In the 1940s, The British Medical Council appointed infection officers in various hospitals to attempt to regulate and control causes of infection, although such officers only became common in the 1950s during a severe outbreak of Staphyloccosus. After a brief investigation had been conducted, it was found that nearly 100% of patients and staff in various British hospitals had contracted elements of the virus through lack of hygienic precaution during open wound surgeries. Fortunately, the ready availability of penicillin prevented a severe outbreak, but the continued overuse of the drug resulted in drug resistant bacteria and virus and the discovery of the Staphyloccosus Aureus - a virulent skin pathogen immune to initial penicillin serums and recognized as the first antibiotic resistant bacterium - in the late 1960s. By the early 1970s, the drive to control hospital infections was well established in the United States, however, the movement was unorganized and there was no success in eliminating infections associated with medical practices at the time. It was not until 1976 that the control of infectious diseases in hospitals was transformed from a movement to a mandate when The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals demanded that accredited hospitals have infection control programs. Currently the majority of research of HAIs is conducted by the CDC through The Prevention Epicenter Program, w... ... middle of paper ... ...ent Reform. "Healthcare-associated Infections: A Preventable Epidemic : Hearing before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Second Session, April 16, 2008, Volume 4." - HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS: A PREVENTABLE EPIDEMIC. U.S. G.P.O., 2009, 14 May 2010. Web. Accessed: 18 Oct. 2013. Voss, Andreas. Epidemiology of Systemic Candida Infections: Studies to Pursue the Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology. S.l.: Ponsen & Looijen., 1997. Print. Weston, Debbie. Infection Prevention and Control: Theory and Clinical Practice for Healthcare Professionals. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2008. Print. Yong, Pierre L., Robert Samuel Saunders, and LeighAnne Olsen. The Healthcare Imperative: Lowering Costs and Improving Outcomes : Workshop Series Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academies, 2010. Print.
In one of the studies healthcare workers were provided a questionnaire only 27.3% responded that no other healthcare worker had ever talked to them about MRSA (Raupach-Rosin, et. al, 2016). This study proves that healthcare workers need to be more educated on the topic of MRSA, how it spreads to the patients, and how the intervention of infection control and patient education will assist in reducing the amount of MRSA cases acquired. In one study, patients underwent a MRSA screening for nasal colonization. Out of the 29,371 patients, 3,262 had MRSA colonization. (Marzec & Bessesen, 2016). The study conducted allowed healthcare providers to see the effects of how easily MRSA is spread and how many patients could easily contract
Research shows that when healthcare facilities, care teams, and individual doctors and nurses are aware of infection problems, and take specific steps to prevent them, rates of some targeted HAIs can decrease by more than 70%. Participation in an ongoing system, established for monitoring and consumer reporting of health outcome data, [has resulted in] reduced rates of HAI, improved hospital outcomes, and reduced mortality, overtime. [For example / Studies have reported that,] compared to states with no reporting requirement, those units in states with voluntary reporting systems or with longer periods of mandatory reporting experience had higher infection rates at baseline and/[but] greater reductions in HAIs within six months. [That said / Still,] the challenge remains [however,] that [state legislation / current practices] varies widely regarding which HAIs to measure and report, how the data are collected and analyzed, and the public availability of disclosed
Kleinpell RM, Munro CL, Giuliano KK. Targeting Health Care–Associated Infections: Evidence-Based Strategies. In: Hughes RG, editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Apr. Chapter 42. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2632/
Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are preventable and pose a threat to hospitals and patients; increasing the cost, nominally and physically, for both. Pneumonia makes up approximately 15% of all HAI and is the leading cause of nosocomial deaths. Pneumonia is most frequently caused by bacterial microorganisms reaching the lungs by way of aspiration, inhalation or the hematogenous spread of a primary infection. There are two categories of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (HAP); Health-Care Associated Pneumonia (HCAP) and Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Health care facilities - whether hospitals, nursing homes or outpatient facilities - can be dangerous places for the acquisition of infections (EHA). The most common type of nosocomial infections are surgical wound infections, respiratory infections, genitourinary infections and gastrointestinal infection (EHA). Nosocomial infections are those that originate or occur in health care setting (Abedon). They can also be defined as those that occur within 48 hours of hospital admission, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of an operation (Inweregbu). These infections are often caused by breaches of infection control practices and procedures, unclean and non-sterile environmental surfaces, and ill employees (EHA). Immunocompromised patients, the elderly and young children are usually more susceptible to these types of infections. Nosocomial infections are transmitted through direct contact from the hospital staff, inadequately sterilized instruments, aerosol droplets from other ill patients or even the food and water provided at the hospital (EHA). The symptoms of nosocomial infections vary by type but may include inflammation, discharge, fever, abscesses, and pain and irritation at the infection site (Stubblefield).
The role of nurses in the prevention of MRSA in the hospitals cannot be overemphasized. The prevalence of MRSA in hospitals calls for awareness and sensitization of all party involved in patient caregiving in the hospital. According to Wilkinson and Treas (2011), nurses take on many roles in the hospital: a caregiver, advocate, communicator, leader, manager counsellor, change agent and an educator. (Wilkinson &Treas. (2011) p.13.) The target of healthy people 2020 is to reduce MRSA and all other hospital acquired infection by 75% in the year 2020. (Healthy people 2020) This cannot be achieved without the maximum support of nurses because nurses have regular one on one contact with patients on daily basis.This paper will take a closer look at the role of a nurse as an educator in the prevention of MRSA in the hospital. One of the nurse’s roles in the prevention of MRSA in hospitals is patient/visitor/staff education.
Significance: The topic of Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) is important for all healthcare worker to understand the care they provide to patients can be directly associated with these infections. Healthcare workers must realize the impact these unexpected infections have on a patient’s health and financial wellbeing.
In the past couple of decades, healthcare associated infections have increased. These infections are believed to be highly preventable but there are several reasons that account for the increase of such infections. For example, associated bloodstream infections are on a rise yet their prevention is something that is very basic.
Infection control in dentistry crucial for the well being of employees as well as the patients. Many precautions must be taken to avoid serious illness or injuries.There are many steps and guidelines to follow in infection prevention but as employees in the dental office we must take the time to ensure no harm is done to the clients or ourselves.
The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Program is an essential force maximizing quality, patient centered care, and safety throughout the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS). The VANTHCS “... is a progressive health care provider in the heart of Texas ... we serve more than 117,000 Veterans and deliver 1.4 million outpatient episodes of care each year to Veterans in 38 Texas counties and two counties in southern Oklahoma” (“VA North Texas,” 2016, para. 1). The purpose of the IPC Program is to guide a facility-wide approach toward identifying, preventing, controlling, and eliminating healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This approach is facilitated through infection control (IC) practitioner’s role-modeling behaviors of assessing, supporting, guiding, and/or directing healthcare providers (HCPs) in the application of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to prevent HAIs. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HAIs are often preventable adverse events that pose a major threat to patient safety (“Centers for Disease,” 2016). As a result, IC practitioners recognize the importance of preparing nurse faculty to engage clinical staff in the application of EBPs to prevent infections.