This literature review will analyze and critically explore four studies that have been conducted on hand hygiene compliance rates by Healthcare workers (HCWs). Firstly, it will look at compliance rates for HCWs in the intensive care units (ICU) and then explore the different factors that contribute to low hand hygiene compliance. Hospital Acquired infections (HAI) or Nosocomial Infections appear worldwide, affecting both developed and poor countries. HAIs represent a major source of morbidity and mortality, especially for patients in the ICU (Hugonnet, Perneger, & Pittet, 2002). Hand hygiene can be defined as any method that destroys or removes microorganisms on hands (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). According to the World Health Organization (2002), a HAI can be defined as an infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or other health care facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission. The hands of HCWs transmit majority of the endemic infections. As …show more content…
Interestingly, two studies of the four compared the compliance rates of HCWs in particular nurses and physicians. Sharma, Puri, Sharma, & Whig (2011) found in their study that compliance rates for hand hygiene protocols was significantly higher for physicians (50.8%) as a opposed to nurses (41.3%). In contrast, Mathai, George, & Abraham (2011) had conflicting findings in which higher compliance rates were associated with nurses (45%) in comparison to physicians (17%). Both studies had similar sample sizes and were investigated in developing countries India and Pakistan; nonetheless, language barriers and varying educational levels of different staff groups, may have influenced the understanding of the need for effective hand hygiene (Mathai et al., 2011). Of four studies, three were observational studies, which provide opportunity to question the rigour of the
Washing your hands properly with soap is one of the most important things you can do to reduce the number of germs, or infections you can spread. The issue that needs to be addressed, is how can we promote good hand washing habits efficiently, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. For this reason, Kohler will be introducing the “Hygieia” in Q3 of 2016. The Hygieia is a hands free motion detecting sink that dispenses water, and soap simultaneously.
“The CDC is the primary developer of national infection control and prevention guidelines, often in collaboration with its Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, which is responsible for research and dissemination of the latest information for preventing disease transmission” (Griffis, 2013, p. 175). Infection control will continue to be a topic of discussion as long as germ transmission is still happening. Among these studies is the concern the frequent nonadherence to contact precautions is a huge issue that many studies are still very concerned about (Jessee & Mion, 2013, p. 966). The writer is also concerned with the blatant disregard for hand hygiene that appears to be happening in the medical field. What about what is best for the patient. Do the people that do not use proper hand hygiene not understand how important it
When overcoming concerns and challenges of the current state of hand hygiene compliance, many new strategies must be implemented to promote and progress hand hygiene behavior. One strategy is to continue to observe nurses using recommended practice using multimodal and multidisciplinary technology. Another strategy to increase compliance exists in making hand hygiene an essential part of nursing culture and creating an institutional priority where administrations provide appropriate support and financial resources (Pfoh, Dy, & Engineer, 2013).
Obviously soap and warm water for 20 seconds or hand sanitizer. I will admit I was one of those that didn’t classify “handwashing” as using hand sanitizer, to me washing is soap and water, but it is considered washing and sometimes much more convenient than to be at a sink. But with all that in mind, we also need to remember when it is appropriate to use hand sanitizer. Alcohol based sanitizer kills most of the bad germs, but it does not kill C. difficile, a common healthcare-associated infection that causes diarrhea (CDC, May 5, 2017). If you are caring for a patient with this illness, then you must wash your hands with the real soap and water, no shortcuts! As well as when our hands are visibly soiled. Who wants to walk around with dirty hands anyway? In 2009, Cambridge University did a study correlating on compliance and no compliance with handwashing hygiene and guidelines in hospital care. There were 96 empirical studies, most of which were done in ICU units. They found and overall compliance of 40%. Unadjusted compliance rates were lower in intensive care units (30%-40%0, than in other settings (50%-60%), lower among physicians (32%) than among nurses and before (21%) rather than after (47%) patient contact. The majority of the time, the situations that were associated with low compliance rates were those with a high activity level/or those in which the physician was involved. The majority of the time, the situations that were associated with a higher compliance rate were those having to do with dirty tasks, the introduction of alcohol-based hand rub or gel, performance feedback and accessibility of materials (Cambridge, March
The studies provided in the literature review prove that. It is believed that hand washing is the best thing to do to kill bacteria but as study show hand sanitizing is more efficient (Michaels, 2014). The experiment mentioned before done at the University College of Health Studies proves that hand sanitizing is the best way to kill bacteria in hands (2015). The best way to prevent hospital acquired infections is to wash hands in situations where it is necessary, like when hands are visibly soiled, and use hand sanitizer in situations that are appropriate. In other words use your judgment. Because studies also show that washing hands too often can have damaging effects to hands it is not recommended to use hand washing only (Michaels, 2014). It takes about 20 seconds to wash your hands and 5 seconds to use hand sanitizer. Such a big difference can be made in the prevention of hospital acquired infections by just performing that very simple task that doesn’t take very long to do and so many lives can be saved as
It is estimated that the cost of caring for people who contract a healthcare related infection is over 1 billion pounds a year (National Audit Office, 2009), which puts the emphasis on infection prevention and control into perspective. Hand hygiene has been highlighted as a key factor in reducing these incidences of infection and therefore reducing the costs to the NHS. Health care related infections can cause a range of symptoms from mild discomfort to serious, debilitating damage and even death. By reducing costs of avoidable infection, the money saved can be used in other areas of the NHS to improve the service for users and therefore improve the quality of life for many who are
As a nursing student, it was very helpful to learn that hand hygiene – despite that we are still novices at this path – must be executed with no flaws. And this led me to recognize what areas of the hand should be covered in the technique: palm and back of the hand, thumbs, between fingers, wrists. All health professionals must wash their hands in order to avoid the transmission of microbes among patients or from an external environment to a patient. I also noticed that how missing a specific area of the hand – like thumbs – disrupts the whole idea of the process, since its purpose is to eliminate all microbes, and if any area is left out, the microorganisms from this area can migrate to another and therefore, contaminate the
Healthcare-associated infections can occur in any type of healthcare facility. It usually begins from cross contamination from healthcare providers to the patient, however, it can come from other patients, hazardous medical procedures, and contaminated surgical tools too. Healthcare workers play the leading role in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Srigley et al. (2013) stated that “Healthcare worker (HCW) hand hygiene is considered to be one of the most important interventions for the prevention of HAIs and AROs. However HCW hand hygiene is typically poor, with a median compliance of 40%, and few interventions have been demonstrated to result in significant and sustained improvement” In order to
Stout, A., Ritchie, K. & Macpherson, K. (2007). Clinical effectiveness of alcohol-based products in increasing hand hygiene compliance and reducing infection rates: a systematic review. Journal Of Hospital Infection, 66 (4), pp. 308--312.
(2014) shed light on two key components for infection control, which includes protecting patients from acquiring infections and protecting health care workers from becoming infected (Curchoe et al., 2014). The techniques that are used to protect patients also provide protection for nurses and other health care workers alike. In order to prevent the spread of infections, it is important for health care workers to be meticulous and attentive when providing care to already vulnerable patients (Curchoe et al., 2014). If a health care worker is aware they may contaminate the surroundings of a patient, they must properly clean, disinfect, and sterilize any contaminated objects in order to reduce or eliminate microorganisms (Curchoe et al., 2014). It is also ideal to change gloves after contact with contaminated secretions and before leaving a patient’s room (Curchoe, 2014). Research suggests that due to standard precaution, gloves must be worn as a single-use item for each invasive procedure, contact with sterile sites, and non-intact skin or mucous membranes (Curchoe et al., 2014). Hence, it is critical that health care workers change gloves during any activity that has been assessed as carrying a risk of exposure to body substances, secretions, excretions, and blood (Curchoe et al.,
The focus of health care is and has always been, practicing good hygiene, living a healthy lifestyle, and having a positive attitude reduces the chance of getting ill. Although there is not much prevention we can take for some of the diseases but we can certainly practice good hand hygiene to prevent infection and its ill effects. Research proves that hand washing is surely the most easy and effective way to prevent infection in health care. The question for this research: Is Hand washing an effective way to prevent infection in health care? It led to the conclusion that due to the high acuity, high patient: staff ratio, and lack of re evaluation certain units in the health care facilities cannot adhere to correct hand washing guidelines. Hand
The CDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) are committed to improving hand hygiene in healthcare facilities. They partner with each other to create a tool on hand hygiene self-assessment. This tool allowed health-care facilities to track their progress through the use of the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF). The Framework is a tool to obtain a situation analysis of hand hygiene promotion and practices within an individual health-care facility, according to a set of indicators.
Why is correct hand washing considered deviant? Hygiene education, for children in first world countries, is focused on proper procedure and how this protects them from germs and the spread of disease. It is ingrained into the minds of preschool children that the most important way they can prevent pathogen contamination is by washing their hands, with soap and water. Yet, even though this is an important habit, a large number of adults never continue with the hand washing techniques they learn in childhood. Through an analysis of the association of contamination in relation to hand washing techniques by female Australian university students, a reason for perceptions of deviance becomes evident. Variables such as social pressure and a strong
In conclusion, my overall impression is that this article is very useful to understand that cross-contaminations can be control by the use of effective hand hygiene. It is not only washing hands between patients or sanitizing only because our hands looks clean, it is a matter of knowing when and why we are risking patients if inappropriate technique is used, in few words: knowledge, commitment and responsibility.