Gaius Julius Caesar: The Destruction Of The Roman Republic

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This essay is intended to exonerate Gaius Julius Caesar from the sole responsibility of causing the collapse of the Roman Republic. This essay will explore the compounded actions of notable figures including Tiberus Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Augustus Caesar. By exploring both the actions of, and the means by which the prominent actors of this time period influenced it, this essay will illustrate how the destruction of the Republic was a gradual process encompassing the faults of generations, not only those of a single man. Tiberius Gracchus, elected Tribune of the Plebians (tribunus plebis) in 133 BC, was the first to successfully challenge the senate causing Roman politics to split into two camps: Populares…show more content…
The Optimates, the dominant party, supported the oligarghy often to the detriment of the general populace. Tiberius Gracchus ' objectives were unexceptional agrarian reform bills (Lex Sempronia Agrigaria) which were designed to redistribute land to accommodate the landless. His methods however, were remarkable. 1 Gracchus used his position as Tribune to circumvent the senate and present his bill directly to the concilium plebis, illegally overriding the veto of a senate influenced Tribune, Marcus Octavius, and finally have his reform enacted. After seeking a second term as Tribune Tiberus Gracchus was publicly murdered by a group of senators.*Following in his brother 's footsteps Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune for the years 123 and 122 BC. Gaius Gracchus ' first actions were to devise laws limiting the power of the senate, focusing on trial procedure, capital punishment, exile and diversifying juries to include equites. The inclusion of equites is of importance primarily because it allowed the equestrian class more influence in Roman politics, a fact which likely aided Gaius Marius in his rise to power. He then expanded upon his brother 's land bills demanding increased allotments so as to increase the number of employed citizens.…show more content…
Sulla served as quaestor under Marius and was credited with bringing a non-violent end to the Jugerthine war, thereby inspiring the animosity of Marius. After this Sulla was served as Military Tribune under Marius during the Cimbrian war before being transferred to serve in Catulus ' army in the position of legatus. Afterwards Sulla served in a variety of political offices both within and without Rome itself as well as holding commands in various wars. In 88 BC he was chosen over Marius to command the Roman Army in the first Mithridatic War. This command was bestowed upon Sulla both because of the Senate 's fear of Marius as well as his recent superiority as commander. The senate 's decision was not to stand unopposed. After various political crises Marius, through the hands of the tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus usurped Sulla 's position of Commander. This led to the first march on Rome, an event entirely unprecedented. Sulla upon hearing of Marius replacing him as commander marched six legions across the pomoerium or city limits of Rome. This action would never have been possible without the earlier Marian reforms, as legionaries before the reforms would have been loyal to the state, not their commander. Sulla justified his attack on Rome by claiming that the senate had abandoned the mos maiorum, Rome 's equivalent of a constitution by

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