In “Federalist #10”, Madison describes the dangerous effects that factions can have on Republican government and on its people. Madison defines a faction as a group of citizens who unite under a shared cause, and work against other groups in order to achieve their means. Their means of achieving their goals may achieve adverse effects upon the rights of other citizens. Put in more modern terms, a faction could be reasonably compared to a special-interest group. The sort of faction that most endangers the liberty inherent in United States society are factions that contain a majority of the whole. The weakness of a popular government is its susceptibility to the effects of factions. However, a well-constructed Union provides numerous advantages, and its ability to break and control factions is its most important and vital to the success of the Union. Factions arise due to the nature of man to be moved by different opinions and passions. Men will be diverse in their opinions as well as their social and economic classes, and just by the mere presence of dividing classes will factions arise. By means of factions, legislative measures are often decided by an overbearing majority, with little or no regard for others who do not share their interests. Protecting against factions will protect those in the minority, and ensure that the public good is served.
Madison begins perhaps the most famous of the Federalist papers by stating that one of the strongest arguments in favor of the Constitution is the fact that it establishes a government capable of controlling the violence and damage caused by factions. Madison defines that factions are groups of people who gather together to protect and promote their special economic interests and political opinions. Although these factions are at odds with each other, they frequently work against the public interests, and infringe upon the rights of others.
Ultimately, Madison puts forth the most compelling argument in Federalist 10 saying that multiplying the diversity of interests in a large republic is the key to breaking these dangerous majority factions. This can be accomplished by with the aid of separation of powers and checks and balances in government that is established by the Constitution.
In Federalist No. 10, James Madison stresses that “measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.” Madison philosophized that a large republic, composed of numerous factions capable of competing with each other and the majority must exist in order to avoid tyranny of majority rule.# When Federalist No. 10 was published, the concept of pluralism was not widely used. However, the political theory that is the foundation for United States government was the influential force behind pluralism and its doctrines.
The Madisonian model, which was first proposed by James Madison, is a structure of government made to prevent either a minority or majority group to build up enough power to dominate the others. The Constitution made this possible. One of the principles was to separate the powers of the government into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The separation of powers allowed each of the three branches to be independent with the exception of working together in order to govern. Congress passes laws, the president applies and manages the laws, and the courts elucidates the laws in distinct conditions. Madison clarified his beliefs in Federalist Paper No. 51 saying that in order for a government to exist it was necessary for there to be a balance in power. By giving each branch administer constitutional means, they'll avoid intrusions of the others. The constitutional means are a system of checks and balances, where each branch of government has the right to inspect the conduct of the others. Neither branc...
The ideas that Madison was discussing in his Federalist Paper #10 were that because the character of man, factions are inevitable. He believed a well-created union (government) would collapse and restrain the passion of faction, an unsafe flaw in admired governments. Madison defines factions as “a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or a minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adversed to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community (Reader of Primary Sources pp. 29)”. In other words, they are crowds of individuals who gather collectively to defend and endorse their special economic concerns and political views.
Our founding father George Washington once said “The basis of our political system is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitution of government.” When acquiring independence, The U.S wanted to form a source of government that would conciliated all of their citizens but they wanted to do it in a way that would distinguish them from the parliamentary government of the British. As a result, theU.S created a unique structure of government to assure that no one gain power over another, and this set of structure can be identified as Federalism. Federalism according to American Government is “a system in which the legal power of government is divided between a central or national government and smaller units of state government, usually under the authority of a written constitution.”(Volkomer, Pg33) The U.S separation of powers is evident through the judicial, legislative, and representative branch. The power given to each is in theory balanced and checked by the power of the other two. Each branch serves as a check on potential immoderations of the other two. In this essay, I would be differentiating the political system with that of the British, and explaining certain aspects that makeour political system unique. Although our political system has been the core for our country for centuries, I feel is the best representation even though it could be dysfunctional at times.
The Federalist Papers is the name for the 85 articles that Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote collectively between the years of 1787 and 1788. These essays or articles were written in an attempt to persuade the people of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution. During the time that these papers were being written, the ambient discussions were heightened by political controversy amongst the people. Some were in favor of founding a new government while others were too compliant with the old ways and were often afraid of the consequences that forming a new government would bring. The Federalist Papers helped to ease some of the tension and aimed to reassure that the old form of government did not frighten, oppress, or undermine the voice of the people. The Federalist Papers guided the ratification of the constitution by constructing some of their biggest and crucial arguments, along with the aspiration that Americans at this time had for a more adequate and effective national government and
In Madison’s work of Federalist No. 10, he identifies factions were a problem. He views them as “a dangerous vice”, but at the same time saw factions as a necessary evil. He mentions that “The regulation of these various and interfering interest forms the principal task of modern legislation; and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operations of government.” Here Madison states that factions, opposed in spirit to democratic ideals, spreading “unsteadiness and injustice” which are actually necessary for the function of a representative government. Throughout his paper, Madison explains how pure democracy wouldn’t be able to work, because it had “no cure for the mischief of faction.” He believed that this type of government will give so much power to the majority that it was doomed to fail. He sounded very confident that the new constitution would work. He believed of having a representative and a republic system. He had no doubt in mind that new constitution would be the end of the states embarrassment to the world. Madison saw democracy not as an ideal but something that could be modified to be fitted.
In discussing the problems surrounding the issue of factionalism in American society, James Madison concluded in Federalist #10, "The inference to which we are brought is that the causes of cannot be removed and that relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects." (Federalist Papers 1999, 75) In many ways, the nature of American politics has revolved around this question since our country's birth. What is the relationship between parties and government? Should the party serve as an intermediary between the populace and government, and how should a government respond to disparate ideas espoused by the factions inherent to a free society. This paper will discuss the political evolution that has revolved around this question, examining different "regimes" and how they attempted to reconcile the relationship between power and the corresponding role of the people. Beginning with the Federalists themselves, we will trace this evolution until we reach the contemporary period, where we find a political climate described as "interest-group liberalism." Eventually this paper will seek to determine which has been the most beneficial, and which is ultimately preferable.