Within the document Madison states, "In order to lay a due foundation for that separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government, which to a certain extent is admitted on all hands to be essential to the preservation of liberty, it is evident that each department should have a will of its own" (Madison, The Federalist, No.52. R83). Through the quote Madison states that the government is split into branches that act as their own separate entities. By having these branches be completely separate from each other, the government can assure freedoms and liberties for the people. Madison explains how having multiple branches protects the people by stating, "It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of another part" (Madison, The Federalist, No.52. R84). Madison states that by having separate parts of the government, one part can fight against the corruption of another. Having the government be separated into parts can also keep the entire government from being corrupted instead of just a fraction of it. Madison 's paper states that having the government be separated into parts can protect the liberties of the
James Madison writes in Federalist No. 51, “[i]n framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.” He goes on to explain his concept of “compound republic” in which two distinct governments (national and state) are further subdivided into separate departments. In each of the two distinct governments, the legislative, executive and judicial branches (departments) work like a scale to balance each other and prevent one from gaining too much power or influence. This is the “double security” for the “rights of the people.” (Federalist No.10 & 51).
To explain the link between unequal distribution of property and factions, Madison first clarifies the origin of unequal distribution of property. He states people are born with different talents, attitudes, and physical/mental powers. These inherent qualities he called faculties are rewarded by society. According to Madison, “From the protection of different and unequal faculties of acquiring property, the possession degrees and kinds of property immediately results. (Page 64)” Society prizes some faculties and disregards other, based on people’s needs and culture norms. This fact makes people who were born with compelling aptness will be rewarded more property than others. When a society is liberal, the goal of government is to protect the individual’s rights and property. Since individuals will always have different faculties, the diversity in the faculties of men will always lead to unequal distribution of property.
James Madison once said,” All men having power ought to be distrusted.” Through these words, Madison made the statement that not all government officials use their authority for good; some abuse that power and use it to gain more for themselves rather than vesting it within the people. This issue may lead to tyranny. Tyranny is when all powers belong to only one person or group. In May of 1787, the Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia to draft a better constitution. One of the topics that concerned many was how the constitution would guard against tyranny. Madison and the other delegates wanted a Constitution that would be strong enough to unite the states and the people together without letting there be one person or group gain too much power. They achieved this in several ways. Today, the U.S. Constitution guards against tyranny by including a separation of powers, federalism, and the fair representation of states.
Ultimately, Madison puts forth the most compelling argument in Federalist 10 saying that multiplying the diversity of interests in a large republic is the key to breaking these dangerous majority factions. This can be accomplished by with the aid of separation of powers and checks and balances in government that is established by the Constitution.
James Madison – Founding Father
SUBMITTED TO DR. RICHARD TRULL, JR.
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
BI 4311-01 CHRISTIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE
James Madison Early Life
James Madison was born on March 16, 1751 on his grandmother’s plantation located in Virginia. His parents were visiting his grandparents at the time at the plantation which was located in King George County. James Madison Jr.’s parents were James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison.
All the presidents in the past have played an important part in shaping our country the way it is today. Either for better or for worse. James Madison is one of the presidents which made a difference for the better and probably did some of the best actions for our country. He did his job with pride for The United States of America and he did his job humbly with efficiency. That is why I look up to this American Hero.
In the Constitution, central and state governments received power that was shared and split in a federalist system, preventing tyranny of one over the other. Madison put forward his idea of federalism in Federalist Paper #51. “...the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments...The different governments will each control each other, at the same time each will be controlled by itself” (Doc. A). A Venn diagram derived from the Constitution shows that the central government controlled national affairs such as war, foreign trade, and foreign relations, and states controlled internal affairs such as establishing public services and regulating in-state businesses. The shared powers included taxes, loans, and laws. Despite Madison’s bias towards the federalist system (rarely does one truly attack one’s own political treatise within it) in his quote, the apportioning of powers shows that neither the central or st...
In Federalist No. 10, James Madison stresses that “measures are too often decided, not according to the rules of justice and the rights of the minor party, but by the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.” Madison philosophized that a large republic, composed of numerous factions capable of competing with each other and the majority must exist in order to avoid tyranny of majority rule.# When Federalist No. 10 was published, the concept of pluralism was not widely used. However, the political theory that is the foundation for United States government was the influential force behind pluralism and its doctrines.
The United States system of government is largely credited to James Madison. People who opposed the ratification of the constitution thought it did not secure the proper degree of separation (separation of powers press-pubs.Chicago.edu). However, the idea did not originate with James Madison, the principles creation is attributed to the Frenchmen Baron Montesquieu (separation of powers legaldictionary.com). “What distinguished the English constitution as the colonists considered it was the balance that existed among the components of the government, a balance intended to preserve liberty while providing the necessary degree of authority needed to maintain social order” (Beltz 28). The separation of powers is a basic constitutional principal of modern democracy. “Since the writings of Locke and Montesquieu, the separation of the legislative, executive, and judicial is deemed essential to avoid tyranny from the people who hold these powers” (separation of powers transparency.org). A society where the law is not overseen and the separation of powers of is not ensured ...