Public health policy is the intertwining of health and policy which impacts the general population (Porche, 2012). The legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government can make administrative decisions that can impact the actions, behaviors, or resources in a community. The impact of the administrative decisions can affect the health of a population (Porche, 2012). If the overall health of a population is poor then the effect is not only felt by the people themselves but can also impact the government (Ungvarsky, 2017). Therefore, the health of citizens is important to government entities. Most governments have set up public health policies to maintain and improve public health. A controversial public health policy is the mandatory vaccination of children. This paper will provide an analysis of this ethical issue, along with evaluating the ethical dimensions of mandatory vaccination. Lastly, justification will be provided for the importance of this public …show more content…
Utility is the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Paternalism occurs when a person’s rights are restricted for the sake of the public’s health. Mandating vaccination of children allows for a greater number of people to be vaccinated which helps with herd immunity. Herd immunity is essential for infants, the immunocompromised, and for those people whose immune system does not respond to vaccination. As discussed earlier in this paper, some vaccines have a fragile threshold and require a larger number in the population to be vaccinated to prevent outbreaks. A detrimental effect can occur when a person does not consider the common good of the community by vaccinating. This detrimental effect will have an impact on the overall well-being of the community, each individual’s well-being, as well as the individual’s well-being that chose not to vaccinate (Hendrix et al.,
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has listed immunizations as the number one greatest public health achievement in the 20th century. This attainment towards the goal of health and safety is a huge success for not only our country but from the global perspective as well. Immunizations help to prevent illness and death from vaccine-preventable diseases. The World Health Organization states that global vaccination coverage has remained consistent for the past few years; for example, the percentage of infants fully vaccinated against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis has held secure at 83%. Programs for population-wide vaccinations have helped with the annihilation of polio in America since the late 1970’s, the eradication of smallpox, and the control of numerous other infectious diseases in the United States and other parts of the world.
America looks at disease as a war. Illness is the enemy, vaccinations are the weapons, and the unfortunate cost is that some innocent civilians may lose their lives. A vaccine is a substance used to provide immunity against a disease. In some cases, vaccines have done more harm than good. Ignoring this fact, vaccines are mandatory in every state, and some states are trying to take away the parent’s right to deny them. The disadvantages, diseases, and disabilities caused by vaccines justify the parent’s right to decide against the risk of vaccination.
Vaccination was first introduced globally for small pox and later on extended to other communicable diseases which are now known as vaccine preventable disease. Vaccination is beneficial both for individuals and community. This bring us to the ethical dilemma - Vaccination of a healthy child with the intention of protecting both the individual child and the community at the same time exposing the child to the theoretical risk of exposure to disease products whether live, attenuated or killed. There was a time when people never questioned the government or their physicians. Now because of more public awareness and accessibility to medical information, they are questioning the safety aspects of vaccines.
Many people believe that medical decisions for children should be left up to the parents or the child’s legal guardian. “ If the state can tag, track down, and forced citizens against their will to be injected with biological products of known and unknown toxicity today, there will be no limitation which individual freedoms that state can take away in the name of the greater good tomorrow.” (Barbara Low Fisher, co-founder of the National Vaccine Information Center)
First, mandatory vaccination of all children with no exemptions represents one extreme. However, historically, such policy efforts have resulted in a backlash against childhood vaccinations (Salmon, MacIntyre & Omer, 2015). Groups coalescing against alleged attacks on privacy rights and freedom of choice typically become more vocal and have had success in getting proposed legislations to be opposed. Likewise, evidence suggests that such extreme policy positions is not necessary as some groups, such as children who are home-schooled, do not have the same need for vaccinations (Salmon, MacIntyre & Omer, 2015). Given this data, it would appear mandated vaccination policies are less than
In some countries, patients are given the option to opt-out of receiving important and potentially life-saving vaccinations due to “personal” reasons. With the option to opt-out of vaccinations, the chance for the world to be completely immunized against any one specific disease is highly unlikely. In the United States, for example, Stein asserts that “various states allow opt-outs from vaccination, based on medical, religious, or philosophical reasons”. Giving the public the option to opt-out of receiving a vaccination can prove to cause more damage than requiring the public to be vaccinated. In some situations, the option to opt-out of receiving a vaccination proves to be a horrible and deadly decision, such as a measles outbreak in Philadelphia churches in 1990. Stein describes the situation, “these outbreaks [affecting 486 of 892 individuals] that didn’t accept vaccines, caused six deaths, indicating a potentially high risk of disease and sometimes death among individuals who refuse vaccination on religious grounds”. Since people can opt-out of receiving vaccinations in certain situations, vaccine-preventable diseases will always remain a huge risk due to global travel and the reintroduction of diseases. Due to that, the “at risk” population, consisting of children and senior citizens, is placed at an even larger risk of contracting the
Throughout time, there have been millions of different controversial topics. However, one of the most popular topics today has affected millions of children, or so they say. Should you or should you not encourage vaccinating children? Should you chance your children getting a deadly disease or should you chance the terrible illness of Autism? Over the years, there have been huge debates on whether or not vaccinations play a role in Autism. Autism is a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people. Autism rates in developing countries have risen drastically in the past 20 years (CDCP,2018) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1 in 68 children have been identified with ASD. ASD is about 4.5 times more common among boys (CDCP,2018). There are two different arguments over this controversial topic. Generally speaking, the parents that are for vaccinating their children believe that
Should immunizations be required or should it be up to parents? It is hard to draw the line between choice and necessity when that choice has the possibility of creating a health crisis. The decreasing amounts of vaccinated children directly impacts public health, as unvaccinated children are more likely to get and spread diseases. In recent years, outbreaks of diseases like measles and whooping cough have contributed to rising concerns about vaccinations. “In 2014, 23 measles outbreaks occurred in 27 states — causing the highest number of cases since the disease had supposedly been eliminated in 2000” (Lemons p.9). These outbreaks lead legislators to introduce mandatory immunization bills—like California’s SB277, which makes it illegal to enroll in schools or daycare without required vaccinations. Opposition arose from those saying that the bill took away the personal freedom to not be vaccinated. But what is the value in that
Vaccines are routinely given to people from childhood onwards to provide active acquired immunity and protection against common diseases. Their ingredients are reported to be safe by pharmaceutical companies and the New Zealand ministry of health (2012) states that vaccines help prevent diseases in New Zealand (NZ) such as the measles. Despite this many parents have formed what is known as the anti-vaccination communities for a variety of reasons to refuse routine and mandated vaccinations for their children. Ethical factors arise whether it is right to differ or refuse vaccinations, is it unethical to pressure parents to vaccinate their children. The ethical factors such as ideological opposition, freedom of choice and uncertainty are factors
To vaccinate or not to vaccinate that is the question. Vaccination has been a hot topic of debate among parents, naturopaths, medical professionals etc since to beginning of its development. Fuel has been added to the fire of the vaccine debate by the media and anti-vaxxer fear mongering tactics, making it hard for people, in particular parents considering vaccination, to decipher fact from fiction. It is important that we first understand the facts rather than believing the latest rumor before making an informed decision upon whether or not we agree with vaccines, and that is what i aim to do in this report. Through my research i have decided that i full heartedly agree with vaccination and believe that everyone who is able to should be vaccinated.
Precisely, vaccines are the only solutions that efficiently counter diseases. They massively lower the rate of diseases to a minuscule margin, hence effectively eliminating diseases from many regions. However, in order to eradicate diseases from a country, parents must regularly vaccinate themselves and their children from the most fatal diseases. To emphasize this claim, Center for Disease Control and Prevention from “Why Immunize” states, “Unless we can “stop the leak”(eliminate the disease), it is important to keep immunizing.” To enumerate the negative consequence of refutation of vaccines, measles, a highly contagious disease, deteriorated the health of a multitude of individuals in Disneyland, California and Swansea (UK) in 2015, because the infection spread rapidly from person to person. However, the simple idea of vaccination can protect all children and people from this inauspicious outbreak. Particularly, a single dose of the MMR vaccine can immunize nine out of ten vaccinated children against measles (Loving). Also, immunizing children not only protects them, but also protects the future generations. According to “Why Immunize” “We don’t vaccinate just to protect our children. We also vaccinate to protect our our grandchildren and their grandchildren.” A complete elimination of a disease will allow future generations to live healthy
Would you intentionally put your children in harm’s way? Of course not! Parents would never want their children to suffer, especially if there was a way to protect them. However, some parents put their children at risk for deadly diseases by refusing to vaccinate them. If your children are not properly vaccinated, then they are vulnerable to harmful diseases. Vaccines have eliminated many diseases and saved millions of lives. There is currently no federal law that requires vaccination. However, if we do not immunize our children, we are putting them and others at risk for diseases that we can prevent. Children should be vaccinated for their safety and for the well being of the community.
Vaccines are common around the world. We all get them at a young age to keep us and the world around us safe. According to the Center for Disease Control; over the years vaccines have prevented countless cases of disease and saved millions of lives. Some may say you are risking your child’s life by not getting vaccinated, others may disagree and say you are risking your child’s life by getting so many vaccines at a young age. This literature review will go over the history of how vaccines came about, the meaning of vaccination, and immunization. It will also answer some key questions like, is vaccines the cause of autism? Are vaccines good or bad for you? Lastly the benefits
On one side, parents argue it should be their decision on whether they vaccinate their children or not. On the other hand, doctors argue that by not immunizing a few children, the risk factor for those choosing to immunize is increased. Since this is a risk some parents are willing to take, while others are left with no choice, there is obviously a need for a solution. Almost all parents prioritize their children’s health over their education, social developing, etc. Pro-vaccine parents point to the greater than 500% decrease in the twentieth century of new diagnosis for diseases such as measles and diphtheria. Non-vaccine parents accept the large decrease in diagnosis of the diseases, but attribute it to the better nutrition, healthcare, and sanitation available in the twentieth century (McMahon-Pratt). It is hard to determine which of these two possible factors was directly responsible for the decrease.