The structure inside the catalytic converter is a honeycomb to allow for a maximum surface area for the reactions to occur while requiring minimal amounts of the catalysts required for the reactions to take place because these catalysts are expensive. Reduction Catalyst The reduction catalyst is the first step that the exhaust goes through in the catalytic converter. The catalysts used in this part are platinum and rhodium to break now NO and NO2 molecules in to N2 and O2 gases which are non-polluting.
The catalytic converters are very pricey. “To reduce costs, experiments are being done to lessen the amount of platinum (Pt) and substitute palladium (Pd) in converters” (“Improved Low-Temperature Performance of Catalytic Converters”). The catalytic converter uses catalysts such as platinum which is expensive; however, the producers are trying to use cheaper catalysts or at least less of it. “Not enough oxygen is available to oxidize the carbon fuel in these engines completely into carbon dioxide and water; thus toxic by-products are produced” (“Catalytic Converters”). Today, there are many experiments being conducted in order to find a solution to the problem and completely prevent the engine from releasing toxins.
Cast iron has better effect for recation because of high carbon content but it has many disadvantages such as low intensity, easy to crush and agglomerate. Although steel scrap has lower carbon ... ... middle of paper ... ... pH will destruct the flocs produced by the reaction to make the process producing colored Fe2+ less effect. In addtion, many practical operation shows that the reaction will not occur in the neutral or alkaline conditions. Therefore the pH generally should be controlled in acidic conditions. 3.2 Retention time Retention time is another major factor because the length of it determines how long the redox will be.
]. Some alloying elements sometimes added to impart special characteristics to brass. Lead, which is insoluble in copper alloys, used to improve machinability of leaded brass. However, Pb and Bi or other elements that are used to improve the machinability often deteriorate the low and high temperature ductility of brass . The content of Pb element is varies between 2.5 and 3.5 %, which make the machining processes at high speed and good surface .
It functions by decreasing the energy essential to reduce C-C bonds when the larger hydrocarbon molecules are absorbed on the outside of the alumina particles. Catalytic cracking breaks down complex hydrocarbons into simpler molecules in order to boost the quality and quantity of lighter, more desirable products and lessen the amount of residuals. This procedure rearranges the molecular construction of hydrocarbon compounds. Catalytic cracking is related to thermal cracking except that catalysts smooth the progress of the transfer of the heavier molecules into lighter products. To make a use of a catalyst in the cracking reaction increases the yield of improved-quality products under much less brutal working circumstances than in thermal cracking.
Catalysts include zeolite, aluminium hydrosilicate, and bauxite. The hydrocarbons (only from the oil fraction) are heated in the same way but the catalyst speeds up the reaction by lowering the boiling point of the substance and allowing high molecular mass alkanes to break into many low molecular mass alkanes and some alkenes. Because the bond breaking happens randomly, many different forms of the substances are made, i.e. cyclo or branched isomers.
CATALYST - using a catalyst can speed up reactions. If there is a catalyst in the reaction then the collision needs less energy in order to be successful. This results into more collisions becoming successful, so the reaction goes faster, catalysts are very important in industry. Reactions are speeded up at low temperatures, which means less fuel is needed so money is saved. SURFACE AREA - if the Magnesium had a large surface area the atoms in the outer layer will only collide with the acid particles but if the metal was powdered, many more atoms are exposed, so there is a greater chance of successful collisions.
It also doesn't shorten the life of your engine if done properly. The only problem with a turbo is the price. Turbo's range anywhere from 2,000 dollars to 5,000 dollars and many other minor modifications must be made which also increase cost. Nitrous, is something totally different from turbo. Nitrous is a gaseous mixture that is either directly injected into your engine's pistons or into you intake manifold.
All other metals are processed from minerals or ores into metals which are innately unstable in their environments. These unstable metals have a tendency to revert to their more stable mineral forms. Some metals form protective ceramic films (passive films) on their surfaces and these prevent, or slow down, their corrosion process. We can prevent corrosion by using metals that form naturally protective passive films, but these alloys are usually expensive, so we have developed other means of corrosion control. That are discussed later in this paper.
When a nuclear reaction happens, it releases tons of more energy than traditional sources of energy. There are Marino 2 economic advantages in creating power plants and using the energy in place if normal destructive energy. Finally, the transportation of energy requires little raw materials and is environmentally friendly . The waste produced by nuclear reactors needs to be disposed off at a safe place since they are extremely hazardous and can leak radiations if not stored properly. These wastes can be used to make nuclear weapons.