Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase

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Effect of Lead Ions On Bacterial and Fungal Amylase Amylases are enzymes, which hydrolyse starch into Maltose. There are two types of amylase: Alpha amylase that degrades starch, which is a polysaccharide, into fragments 10 glucose residues long. Beta Amylase breaks these down into maltose, which is a disaccharide of two glucose molecules joined together. Both enzymes work by hydrolysis of the glycosidic link in carbohydrates. Enzyme amylase are produced from different sources but in my experiment I will be concerned with Bacterial and fungal amylase. Heavy metal ions cause inhibition of enzyme. Inhibition of an enzyme means either to slow down the rate of reaction, to increase the rate of reaction or both. Inhibitors can slow the rate of reaction in various ways. One way is that it competes with the normal substrate for binding of active sites. . Once it is attached to an enzyme molecule it prevents the normal substrate from doing so. This is known as a competitive inhibition. A quite different inhibition would be is when an inhibitor such as lead ions can attach itself permanently to the active site of the enzyme thereby excluding any possibility of normal substrate taking up its rightful space. So in this case the inhibitors are not competing with each other so this is known as non-competitive inhibition. Inhibition is not confined to be not only confined to substances, which combine with the active sites of enzyme. Some inhibitors combine with the other parts of an enzyme molecule altering the shape in such a way that substances no longer fit with the active sites. In some inhibition active sites can be used ... ... middle of paper ... ...oblems and cause damage to the body. If enzymes are in powdered form then it can cause eye problem. Wear goggles to give protection to your eyes. About harmful liquid solutions getting into your eyes, which can be very irritant so rinse your eyes immediately. Some solutions could also spill in your skin. If this happens rinse your skin immediately. You can reduce the risk by wearing disposable gloves. It is important to maintain cleanliness because minor impurities may ruin a good bio-chemical experiment. It is also very important to label different containers so we do not get the solutions mixed up. This involves less risk as it does not involve anything being heated up so less chance of skin burn. Ethical implications It would not be ethical to use a source of enzymes from animal cell sources.

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