One of the major characteristics of SIDS is that of ‘silent death’, which occurs during a sleep period. The majority of SIDS cases are between 1-6 months, with the peak occurrence being between 2-4 months. Boys are affected more often than girls (Becker, 1990). Although there are many theories in regards to the cause of SIDS, the principle cause has not as yet been identified. Most researchers attribute the underlying mechanism of death to acute respiratory insufficiency occurring predominantly during sleep.
17. Strong, M. J., Hudson, A. J. Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 1850-1989: A statistical analysis of the world literature. Can. J. Neural. Sci., 1991, 18: 45-58.
The prevalence in children born to young mothers is 1 in 1000, while it increases to almost 1 in 40 in children born to mothers over 40. Most individuals with Down?s Syndrome have characteristic features such as upward slanted eyes, broad flattened face, short neck, and a prominent tongue. Muscle coordination is often impaired in these individuals, resulting in uncoordinated posture and balance. Congenital heart disease is found in forty percent of these individuals, along with a near twenty fold increase in the risk of kidney malformation, thyroid abnormalities, diabetes, leukemia. Neurological retardation and impaired immune systems render these individuals more susceptible to infection and disease.
All of these are risk factors that are likely to have a bearing on the child’s social inequalities on their health. The biological factors include premature birth, low birth weight, and a serious medical illness. The significantly influence and infants growth. “Low birth weight, less than 2500 grams, has a prevalence of 6 percent in white middle-class U.S. women, and 15 percent in ethnic minority teenagers. These teenagers tend to be single mothers.” At the Infant Health and Development Project, they found that in a large amount of premature infants, that their IQ was less than 85 at three years of age.
Goyco, P.G., and Beckerman, R.C. "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. "Current Problems in Pediatrics 20(6):299-346, June 1990. Willinger, M., James, L.S., and Catz, C. "Defining the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Deliberations of an Expert Panel Convened by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. "Pediatric Pathology 11:677-684, 1991.
Cystic fibrosis Lifetime treatment 70,000 worldwide Exomphalos Operable 1 in 3,000 live births Gastroschisis Operable 1-5 per 10,000 live births Down syndrome (Trisomy21) Untreatable 1 in 700-900 PatauSyndrome (Trisomy13) Very limited life rate 1 in 10,000 Edwards' Syndrome (Trisomy18 Newborns have a 40% chance of surviving to age 1 month. Infants have a 5% chance of surviving to age 1 year. Children have a 1% chance of surviving to age 10 years. [Source: patient.co.uk] (patient.co.uk) 1 in 6,000 Survival, and Recurrence Risk Parental Concerns Parental concerns are mostly essential in Edwards’s syndrome. They need counselling regarding their family relationships.
The Effects of Otitis Media with Effusion on Hearing Millions of children visit their doctor each year for a problem that is commonly known as an ear infection, and countless others suffer silently because their symptoms are not recognized (Hemmer & Ratner, 1994). An inflammation of the middle ear and often the mastoid process and Eustachian tube is termed otitis media and is second only to the common cold as the most common illness of early childhood (Medley, Roberts, & Zeisel, 1995). Unlike the common cold, however, incidents of otitis media are often accompanied by temporary mild to moderate hearing loss and auditory deprivation (Finitzo, Gunnarson, & Clark, 1990). The American Academy of Pediatrics (as cited in Stewart, Anae, & Gipe, 1989) reports that growing evidence indicates a correlation between middle-ear disease with hearing impairment and delays in the development of speech and cognitive skills. These issues are of concern to physicians, educators, and parents of children who suffer regular occurrences of otitis media because the disease is most common during the period of early childhood when speech and language skills are developing (Roberts, Burchinal, Koch, Footo, & Henderson, 1988).