This paper will attempt to describe Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The different causative factors, as well as the diagnosis of this disorder will also be described. Finally, the different treatments that are available for ADHD will be discussed. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is a psychological condition that usually begins in early childhood and often lasts into adulthood (University of Illinois, n.d.). Have you ever noticed a child having trouble concentrating, that can't seem to sit still, who interrupts others during their conversation, or has acted impulsively without thinking? Most of us can think of a child that has these problems, but for some children, these behaviors are uncontrollable and can interfere with their ability to form friendships or their success in school (Bussing & Grohol, n.d.). "There are three broad sets of symptoms associated with ADHD: inattention and distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity;" however, it is not necessary to have symptoms from all three of these areas to be diagnosed with ADHD (University of Illinois, n.d.). The hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms are more prevalent in males and are more severe earlier in their childhood. Many children with ADHD also experience secondary problems, which can include academic problems and problems with their peers (University of Illinois, n.d.). Children who have symptoms of inattention may be easily distracted, have difficulties focusing, become bored easily, have no organizational skills, or just can't seem to complete or turn in their homework. Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may have trouble sitting still and being quite, or they may seem like they are constantly "on the go." C... ... middle of paper ... ...rders/childhood-adhd/ Butcher, J., Mineka, S., Hooley, J. (2010). Abnormal Psychology, 14th edition. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013, November 13). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data & statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (n.d.). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/index.s html?utm_source=REFERENCES_R7#pub8 University of Illinois. (n.d.). A student's guide to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Retrieved from http://www.counselingcenter.illinois.edu/self-help-brochures/academic-difficulties/a-student %E2%80%99s-guide-to-attention-deficithyperactivity-disorder-adhd/
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
ADHD presents itself in three major categories; predominately hyperactive, predominately inattentive, or a combined hyperactivity and inattention. Predominately hyperactive presents as excessive physical activity and impulsive behaviors. This can include constant fidgeting, an inability to stay in ...
Many psychologists regard ADHD as a state deficit, where children are highly aroused to compensate for the body’s feeling of under arousal. (Kerns, Eso, Thomson, 1999) Three main features of ADHD are 1.Impulsivity, the children often act before they consider consequences 2.Hyperactivity, the children struggle to sit still 3.Inattentiveness, the children have difficulty focusing on a subject because of the overload of stimuli in the environment. Research may indicate that ADHD has biological origins and set symptoms, such as fidgeting, excessive talking, difficulty maintaining concentration, impulsive behavior, lack of focus and messiness. (http://www.mnsi.net/~collinsw/ritalin.htm) According to the Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology, in a recent conference held by the NIMH, National Institute of Mental Health, the validity of the diagnosis of ADHD was held in question. (www.breggin.com) The cause of ADHD is unknown as of yet, and speculation is all psychologists have to diagnose and treat patients. The DSM-IV has categorized ADHD by the three dimensions listed above and included 18 symptoms under the three categories, which include some listed above. ADHD has undergone significant renaming and evaluation since the last publication of the Diagnostic Statistic Manual. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, was referred to as ADD or sometimes ADD-H, Attention Deficit Disorder with hyperactivity. (www.journals.cup.org)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)
ADHD is a condition that makes it difficult for children and adults to pay attention, control their activity level and limit their behavior in age appropriate ways (2). Inattention is the most common symptom. In addition to having difficulty paying attention, people with this ADHD symptom often are unable to consistently focus, remember, and organize. They may be careless and have a hard time starting and completing tasks that are boring, repetitive, or challenging., impulsiveness and hyperactivity. With impulsivity, people who frequently act before thinking may not make sound judgments or solve problems well. They may also have trouble developing and maintaining personal relationships. An adult may not keep the same job for long or spend money wisely. A hyperactive child may squirm, fidget, and climb or run when it is not appropriate. These children often have difficulty playing with others. They may talk a great deal and not be able to sit still for even a short time. Teenagers and adults who are hyperactiv...
Typically when one hears the term “ADHD” and the potential negative effects that it could have on someone striving towards academic success, they immediately think school age children. Though it is more common for children to be diagnosed and treated, 5% of U.S. adults are living with this condition (American Psychiatric Association, 2012). First ADHD must be defined before coping methods can be explained. ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder is a diagnosis applied to children and adults who consistently display certain characteristic behaviors such as distractibility (poor sustained attention to tasks), impulsivity (impaired impulse control and delayed gratification), and hyperactivity (excessive activity and physical restlessness) (Jaksa, 1998). These are signs that will normally be identified by the child’s educator. Signs and/or symptoms could present themselves differently in adults and affect different aspects of their daily lives.
It needs to be analyzed what is the root cause of this problem and what in the last few years has caused Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit hyperactivity disorder to rapidly become one of the most frequently observed disorder among children. Children are being observed at homes, schools and various vantage points to check whether they are suffering from such a disorder. Awareness is also increasing about the disorder in order to assist the children and their fa...
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, more commonly referred to as simply ADHD, is the most commonly diagnosed disorder among American children today. According to the National Institute on Mental Health an estimated 3 to 5 percent of school age children are affected by this disorder. (1) There are more diagnosed cases of ADHD of in the United States than there are anywhere in the world. The main symptoms of ADHD include "developmentally inappropriate levels of attention, concentration, activity, distractibility, and impulsivity." (1) While the number of people diagnosed with ADHD increases dramatically every year, there is still much about the disorder that is not understood. While scientists have deduced that ADHD originates in the brain, they still have many questions about the nature of it. The classification of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has become quite a controversial topic in American society today. There are some who believe that by recognizing the symptoms associated with the disorder as ADHD; science is simply putting a band-aid on a problem that could be otherwise corrected with behavior modification.
Being focused on to the important aspects of life is one of the main functions of the brain. In some diseases or disorders this special function of the brain is either lost or diminished. One such disorder which diminishes the functions of the brain is the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This disorder was initially considered to affect only children but this is a misconception as this disorder is also noticed amongst adults. This essay will focus upon the Adult Attention Deficit hyperactive disorder. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neuropsychiatric condition in which an individual is not able to concentrate or focus on a single aspect for a longer time. This leads to a lack of attention and it affects activities of an individual in everyday life. This essay would further revolve around the different psychological aspect of Adult Attention Hyperactivity Deficit Disorder putting forward the characteristics of the disorder along with great emphasis on the medical treatment and other related issues. To be very particular this work will focus upon every aspect of the disorder relating to its evolution, treatment, etiology and evaluation. (Grosenbach 2000 & Whiteman et al 1995)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is very commonly known. Today, ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders among children. The NIMH (The national institute of mental health) predicts that it affecting 3 to 5 percent of all children(AACAP), with an approximate amount of 30% to 65% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood (AACAP).There are three types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type(ehow.com). The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three main categories; hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. These behaviors can interfere with ADHD sufferers’ ability to focus deliberately on organizing and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy. A case of this kind of behavior is recognized in a report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behavior (clinicaltrials.gov) These kinds of behaviors can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem, depending on severity of their symptoms (adhd.com). In this paper, the multiple factors of how ADHD affects, and is handled, of those who undergo this disorder, are shown.
According to Maria Basile, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder characterized by ongoing difficulty with attention span, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity. She points out that many children have challenged themselves to keep the disorder under control. She also shows that the children can be over-active or impulsive. Their development is not equal to an average child. Numerous of researches have been constructed in order to determine the percentage of children that posse ADHD. Basile shows statistics that reveal the percentage of the children who have ADHD, “The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) estimates that 3% to 5% of children have ADHD. Some experts, though, say ADHD may occur in 8% to 10% of school age children” (Basi...
The most common behaviors of ADHD fall into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive, or they may show all three types of behavior. Inattention is when people have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. They may find it agonizing to do homework without getting bored. Often they will forget to plan ahead by writing down the assignment or bringing home the right books. When finally trying to do work they may find themselves drifting to something else; as a result, work will rarely get done.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder also known as ADHD is one of the most common childhood disorders that continue through adulthood. Although ADHD is not considered a learning disability, children diagnosed with ADHD can be impacted tremendously in areas such as sitting still, staying focused, being organized, and completing homework each of these things affect the learning of children with ADHD. Children who are diagnosed with ADHD have trouble focusing, controlling their behaviour and usually act without thinking. ADHD occurs in about 3 to 7 percent of the population and is more common in boys than girls (Kingsley, 2012). ADHD during middle childhood affects children’s behaviors at home and school. There are many different symptoms that children experience before they are diagnosed with ADHD, these symptoms all fall under the three main types of the disorder; predominately inattentive type, predominately hyperactive-impulsive type, and the combined type. ADHD is often found with other disorders and associated problems. Middle childhood children diagnosed with ADHD can begin to experience many challenges in school and at home. Although ADHD cannot be cured it can be successfully treated and managed to support all children diagnosed with ADHD to being successful academically and to have control over their behaviour.