Overview of Down Syndrome

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“About 13 of every 10,000 babies born in the United States each year is born with Down syndrome. It affects an equal number of male and female babies” (Johnson P. A. 2014). Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that found across the world, however it is more prevalent in the United States. The cause of the disorder roots to the paring of the human chromosomes. A normal human receives 23 pairs of chromosomes, each pair coming from mother and father. In Down syndrome most people affected have an abnormal cell division of the chromosome. Both parents are carriers of the There are three types of variations that includes trisomy 21, mosaic, and translocation. The type of mutation that occurs in Down syndrome is aneuploidy that is the irregular number of chromosomes in a cell. The most common of the three is the trisomy 21 that occurs in about 90% of people with the disorder. In this factor the human is given three copies of the chromosome 21 instead of the common two copies. This occurs due to the complications of the cell division in the process of the egg or sperm. The next case is mosaic which happen when there are inequality of cells with three copies of chromosome 21 and others with the original two copies. Mosaic appears when there is an unexpected cell division after fertilization. The last and the rarest form is translocation and that happens while the chromosome 21 in cell division is broken off and attached to another chromosome. Since the disorder is unexpected there are numerous amounts of risk factors that are possible based on the severity of the person. The typical defect that takes place with a human affected is heart problems. In early infancy surgery needs to be taken place to avoid serious issues in the future. Atypica... ... middle of paper ... ... Birth defects. (2013, November 6). Retrieved January 19, 2014, from Centers of Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/DownSyndrome.html Down syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2014, from National Institutes of Health website: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/down-syndrome Johnson, P. A. (2014). Down syndrome. In L. J. Fundukian (Ed.), The gale encyclopedia of medicine (4th ed.). Retrieved from Gale Science in Context database. (Accession No. DU2601000443) Mayo clinic. (2011, April 7). Down syndrome. Retrieved January 19, 2014, from Mayo Clinic website: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20020948 Research projects in down syndrome. (2014). Retrieved January 26, 2014, from Center for Mind and Brain website: http://mindbrain.ucdavis.edu/labs/Rivera/research-areas/down-syndrome
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