The diagnosis of Post –Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) involves clusters of symptoms. They include persistent re-experiencing of the trauma, avoidance of traumatic reminders/ general numbing of emotional responsiveness, and hyper-arousal (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In order for the possible diagnosis of PTSD the individual needs to have exposed to a
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively new diagnosis that was associated with survivors of war when it was first introduced. Its diagnosis was met largely with skepticism and dismissal by the public of the validity of the illness. PTSD was only widely accepted when it was included as a diagnosis in 1980 in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association. PTSD is a complex mental disorder that develops in response to exposure to a severe traumatic event that stems a cluster of symptoms. Being afflicted with the disorder is debilitating, disrupting an individual’s ability to function and perform the most basic tasks.
Everyone at some point have experience fear due to a situation that overwhelms us. This is an essential response of our bodies that can help us survive. However, when these fears are constant, they can disable an individual. Panic disorder (PD) it’s a mental illness that leads a person to have recurring panic attacks, (Strickland, 2001). Panic attacks in people with PD arise unexpectedly, situationally predisposed and / or by situations that remind them experienced dreadful events. PD can be categorized under two types: PD with or without agoraphobia. Agoraphobia is the fear of being in a situation or place in which the person thinks that would be difficult or embarrassing to escape. Some individuals develop agoraphobia after the first episodes of panic attacks; others acquire it years later, (Key, 2012).
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, also known as “PTSD” is classified as an anxiety disorder in which a person has in the past experienced a stressful event such as a war, rape or physical and emotional abuse (Schiraldi, 2009). The DSM-V states that by witnessing, being involved or knowing a family member or friend that experienced such event can result into PTSD and involves a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals who have suffered from PTSD experience episodic memories of the unsafe events that they had to endure and tend to avoid anything that may remind them of the event (Schiraldi, 2009).
Trauma and stress has been a part of the human condition since we evolved as a species. A “fight-or-flight” response to trauma and stress is a healthy reaction that is meant to protect us from danger. Whether from a saber tooth tiger attack, combat, or a terrorist attack, such events will certainly produce similar psychological effects. However individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may continue to feel tormented when they are no longer in danger. PTSD is not a new concept and we can see indication of this disorder as far back as The Bible (the Book of Job), the Mahabharata, Shakespeare and Charles Dickens. As the years passed, new names were given to this disorder. For example, names like, ‘Soldiers Heart’, ‘Estar Roto’, ‘Combat Exhaustion’ and ‘Shell Shock’. Perhaps the most infamous was ‘Shell Shock’. Before mental illness was understood, soldiers returning from war who were not able to recover were labeled as useless and weak. It was not until the modern warfare of World War I and the rise of modern psychology when experts realized the existence of a mental illness (Gersons, 1992). In 1915 Charles Myers coined the term “Shell Shocked” to describe solders that were fearful, crying and had persistent memory intrusions. The name ‘shell shock’ was given due to the thought that the explosions of ammunition, bombs, and concussive force were affecting soldiers. It was not until World War II and then the Vietnam War when researchers realized this problem could be an “anxiety disorder” rather than a short-term adjustment (Trimble, 1986). These wars were a huge boost to PTSD research, because you could find a large number of people suff...
Today we are here to figure out why is it that past events are the triggers that cause Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is an anxiety disorder that some people get after seeing or undergoing a dangerous event. There are various symptoms that begin to show or actions that can give a clear answer whether one may be diagnosed with this disorder. One of the many problems is that no age range is safe from suffering PTSD. One must ask themselves what set of events happened at that time to cause this disaster to occur and how did these events change the lives of these occupants’ forever. By the end of this paper, we will have our results and understanding why this affects many people. We can also figure out if there is a cure for this anxiety disorder or a new way to sedate it. PTSD can be triggered in any age range.
For survivors of traumatic events, the trauma itself is often only the beginning. While some are relatively unaffected, many others will develop post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, an affliction that haunts its victims with terrifying memories, nightmares, and panic attacks. (For a comprehensive list of symptoms and diagnostic criteria, the reader may refer to the DSM-IV, relevant portions of which may be found online (7).) The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that 3.6 percent of Americans between the ages of 18 and 54 suffer from PTSD; 30 percent of those who have spent time in war zones - one million veterans of Vietnam alone - are affected (6). PTSD is treated with several forms of psychotherapy, including exposure therapy, centered around a controlled confrontation of frightening stimuli. While medication may treat co-occurring depression, anxiety, or insomnia (6), pharmacological agents targeting PTSD remain unavailable. In part, this is because researchers have only begun to describe the underlying neurobiology. Several recent studies have pointed to the brain structure known as the amygdala as a central player, but questions remain: How does this small structure "recognize" danger? How does it create emotional memories? What causes recurrence of these memories?
Lucinda, a twenty-year-old college female, has been performing time-consuming cleaning behavior. Her diagnosis is obsessive-compulsive disorder based on DSM IV-TR criteria. The essential features of this disorder are recurrent obsessions and compulsions that can be either of the following: a) severe and to the point of being time-consuming and taking up more than 1 hour of the day or b) causing significant lifestyle impairment that interferes with a person’s normal routine, occupational or academic functioning, or social activities and relationships (Barlow & Durand, 2012).