Dementia is defined by the World Health Organization as a syndrome due to damage of the brain cells that most often chronic and progressive in nature. Some of the cortical functions that become impaired include memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language and judgment. Other manifestations that may accompany this disease are deterioration in emotional control, social behavior or motivation (Ouldred & Bryant, 2009) Dementia is not a normal part of aging, however it occurs most frequently in the older population. Fifteen percent of Americans over the age of sixty-five have dementia, and as the average life span continues to increase, so will the number of those affected by dementia (Fredman, James, Johnson, Scholz, & Weuve, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiology, risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for different types of dementia. Literature Review Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the leading cause of dementia, affecting approximately 5.3 million Americans (Lewis, Dirkenson, Heitkemper, Bucher, & Camera, 2011). This disease is characterized by abnormal amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that develop within the brain. This causes brain cells to die and leads to a reduction of chemicals in the brain, specifically acetylcholine (Ouldred & Bryant, 2009). Risk factors for this disease include age, genetics (ApoE variation), diabetes mellitus, smoking, and depression. Alzheimer’s has also been associated with lower socioeconomic status and education level, and poor access to health care. Women are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than men because women tend to have a longer life span (Lewis et al., 2011). Those with dementia diff... ... middle of paper ... ...vels decrease, the brain cannot create enough energy to work properly. This is a chronic disorder accompanied by severe memory impairment, while other thinking and social skills may remain intact (“Types of Dementia” n.d.). Conclusion As our aging population increases, so will the number of people who develop dementia. This condition is distressing for everyone involved, including the patient, family, and caregiver. As research continues, there is hope for a better quality of life for those affected. It is important to increase awareness, encourage prevention, and to be aware of the early signs and symptoms. Each case of dementia presents itself differently, so it is important to know there are different types of dementia along with slightly different signs and symptoms. The sooner dementia can be recognized and intervened, the greater the outcome for the patient.
The disease called Alzheimer’s is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States (Weiner, 1987). It is estimated that the elderly population will double between now and 2030. During this period, the number of elderly will grow by an average of 2.8% annually (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). By 2050, the number of people with Alzheimer’s is estimated to range from 11.3 million to 16 million (Alzheimer’s Association, 2005). These startling numbers should prompt an examination into one of the leading causes of death among this group of people. Understanding what Alzheimer’s is and the known causes of the disease are a good starting point. For those who have aging family members, knowing the risk factors and warning signs of Alzheimer’s can be beneficial to both the patient and his family. Finally, once the patient has been diagnosed as having Alzheimer’s, a plan for treatment as well as providing the family and caregivers with a support system can help ease those involved through a very challenging, heartbreaking time.
Dementia is a long-term condition that normally affects people aged 65 and over, younger people can be affected. Having dementia can cause loss of key functions to the brain, such as; loss of memory; confusion; speech and language problems; loss of ability to make judgements; loss of concentration; difficulty in processing information; changes in behaviour and personality. These all lead to a person not been able to function properly. The person’s ability to function deteriorates over a period of time and is usually at least 6 months before positive diagnosis of dementia can be made. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases such as Alzheimer’s which is the most common of dementia, vascular which is a series of mini strokes,
Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that affects cognitive function in the elderly population. The exact cause of the disease is unknown but may include genetic as well as environmental factors. A progression of specific neurological changes allows the progression of the disease. Short-term memory losses along with dementia are typical symptoms of the disease. A definite diagnosis of the disease currently can only be confirmed by an autopsy. The disease progresses in five stages that will vary with every patient. There is no current acceptable treatment to reverse or stop the progression of the disease.
Alzheimer’s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have Alzheimer’s, and that number is expected to triple in the next twenty years as more people live into their eighties and nineties. (Johnson, 1989). There is still no cure for Alzheimer’s but throughout the past few years a lot of progress has been made.
There are three different abnormalities that can make up Alzheimer’s disease. The first abnormality is beta-amyloid peptide cut from APP, a membrane precursor protein (Marieb and Hoehn 2013). Too much beta-amyloid is toxic and causes plaque buildup between neurons that reduces levels of acetylcholine which makes is difficult to retrieve old memories and make new ones (Marieb and Hoehn 2013). Another abnormality of Alzheimer’s disease is the presence of neurofibrillary tangles inside the neuron. These tangles consist of tau, a protein that leaves its stabilizing role and binds to another tau molecule forming a neurofibrillary tangle. (Marieb and Hoehn 2013). Neurofibrillary tangles then kill the neuron. The final abnormality of Alzheimer’s disease is brain shrinkage. The brain shrink...
Alzheimer’s is a disease that many people have heard of, but few really know much about. Imagine not being able to remember your loved ones and friends or even how to do simple tasks like dressing yourself and brushing your hair. Now imagine having to dress your mother, who rarely remembers you anymore. This is the reality of life for millions of older people afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease and the families that care for them. Alzheimer’s causes cognitive function to decrease gradually overtime. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia - affecting around 5 million Americans (alz.org). It is the most fatal disease affecting older people and needs to be taken seriously.
Understanding how the brain processes and stores memories has important implication. Dementia is a liberal term that refers to the decline and impairment of speech communication, abstract thought, memory and other cognitive functions. This cognitive disruption occurs to such an extent that they interfere with daily activities Dementia is not a disease itself. Instead, it depicts it describes a group of symptoms that frequently accompanies a disease or a condition. Although, it might initially seem disturbing to consider that half of the adult population will experience the symptoms of a mental disorder. Psychological symptoms without becoming completely debilitated and needing professional intervention most people clearly seem to manage
In the modern age scientists and researchers are constantly discovering new diseases and disorders that affect the human body. With technology improving and new equipment being introduced it enables scientists to gain more knowledge about the disorders than ever before. During the last century a German physician by the name of Alois Alzheimer linked a patient’s memory loss to her brain autopsy which displayed signs of brain shrinkage. His discovery is now known today as Alzheimer’s disease; which is a form of dementia and is a psychological disease that causes the brain to deteriorate. In today’s day and age, there are still many unanswered questions about Alzheimer’s disease (Crider, A., Goethals, G., Kavanough, R., & Solomon, P. 1989). A few known facts are that Alzheimer’s disease is it is most commonly found in elderly humans, with majority of carriers being age 60 or older. It is important to note that Alzheimer’s disease is not an old person’s disease and that it can also be found in adults of younger ages. Furthermore, there are two forms of Alzheimer’s disease. The two forms are called Early-onset which is found in adults ages 30-59 and Late-Onset which is more common and occurs in adults ages 60 and up. Alzheimer’s disease may not be curable, however with the right information it can be easy to conquer (Alzheimer and Dementia Resources).
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, and this terminal, progressive brain disorder has no known cause or cure. Its greatest known risk factor is increasing age which is why is it is infamous for developing in the elderly, typically in ages 65 or over, however for the 5%(1) that develop Alzheimer’s in their 40s or 50s it is known as early Alzheimer’s. Because Alzheimer’s worsens over time, those with it tend to struggle with completing daily tasks especially elderly people. Given that there is no cure for Alzheimer’s, the treatments available slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life for those with Alzheimer’s and their caregivers. It is not known what causes Alzheimer's, however, those with Alzheimer's have been found to have abnormal amounts of protein (amyloid plaques) and fibres.(The amyloid plaques and fibres are found in regions of the brain where problem solving and thinking take place e.g The cerebrum.) Due to the unusual amounts of amyloid plaques and fibres, it reduces the effectiveness of healthy neurons and eventually, destroying them.
Dementia is a disease effecting nearly thirty-six million people worldwide (Whiteman, 2014). Even with so many elderly suffering from the disease, there are many people who don’t know what dementia truly is. People often jump too quickly to the conclusion that dementia is a disease that only effects the memory. They may believe that dementia is inevitable and cannot be cured in any case. They may also believe that dementia is something the majority of elderly will experience when they get older.
Dementia is common in older adults and may develop gradually or even suddenly. Dementia is very common and is used as an umbrella term to describe a wide range of symptoms. It is also important to note that, “Dementia is more prevalent in older adults with the rate doubling about every 5 years after the age of 75 (Erber,2005; Papalia et al.,1996)” (Davis, Gfeller, & Thaut, 2008). Dementia
... and duration varies from person to person. It depends on multiple factors, including the age of diagnosis and other medical conditions. The signs and symptoms start with cognitive disturbance as all other forms of dementia begin. We should refrain from being prejudiced and judgmental because of not taking the time to truly understand this disorder and how it may affect one’s life. Education and patience are the best ways to tackle this issue. In this paper, relevant topics involving dementia were discussed. Part one covered the pathology and staging of dementia. Part two explained the most common types of dementia that many people are diagnosed with. Part three summarized the treatment methods used to manage the disorder. We should apply a professional, respectful, and empathic approach while maintaining specific culture traditions to achieve a successful outcome.
Alzheimer’s Disease is named after a German doctor, who specializes in the brain and nervous system, named Alois Alzheimer. This Disease forms in the brain. Alzheimer’s is the most common form of Dementia, a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to enter. The Tau protein ensures the tubes in your brain stay straight allowing molecules to pass through freely. In Alzheimer’s Disease the protein collapses into strands or tangles, making the tubes disintegrate. There is visible differences of brain tissue in the from misfolded proteins called plaques and tangles. Beta-Amyloid clumps block signals and communication between cells in the brain. Researchers agree that Alzheimer’s Disease is m...