Dementia Dementia is an organic brain syndrome which results in global cognitive impairments. Dementia can occur as a result of a variety of neurological diseases. Some of the more well known dementing diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), multi-infarct dementia (MID), and Huntington's disease (HD). Throughout this essay the emphasis will be placed on AD (also known as dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and primary degenerative dementia), because statistically it is the most significant dementing disease occurring in over 50% of demented patients (see epidemiology). The clinical picture in dementia is very similar to delirium, except for the course. Delirium is an acute transitory disorder. By contrast Dementia is a long term progressive disorder (with the exception of the reversible dementias). The course of AD can range anywhere from 1.5 to 15 years with an average of about 8.1 years (Terry , 1988). AD is usually divided into three stages mild, moderate, and severe. Throughout these stages a specific sequence of cognitive deterioration is observed (Lezak, 1993). The mild stage begins with memory, attention, speed dependent activities, and abstract reasoning dysfunction. Also mild language impairments begin to surface. In the moderate stage, language deficits such as aphasia and apraxia become prominent. Dysfluency, paraphasias, and bizzare word combinations are common midstage speech defects. In the severe stage the patient is gradually reduced to a vegetative state. Speech becomes nonfluent, repetitive, and largely non-communicative. Auditory comprehension is exceedingly limited, with many patients displaying partial or complete mutism. Late in the course of the disease many neuropsychological functions can no longer be measured. Also primitive reflexes such as grasp and suck emerge. Death usually results from a disease such as pneumonia which overwhelms the limited vegetative functions of the patient. Dementia is commonly differentiated along two dimensions: age and cortical level. The first dimension, age, distinguishes between senile and presenile dementia. Senile dementia is used to describe patients who become demented after the age of 65, whereas presenile dementia applies to patients who become demented prior to that age. Late onset AD (LOAD) also known as senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) is the predominant cause of senile dementia. Early onset AD (EOAD) is the most frequent cause of presenile dementia, but HD, Pick's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease though not as frequent are also important causes in presenile dementia.
Dementia is a long-term condition that normally affects people aged 65 and over, younger people can be affected. Having dementia can cause loss of key functions to the brain, such as; loss of memory; confusion; speech and language problems; loss of ability to make judgements; loss of concentration; difficulty in processing information; changes in behaviour and personality. These all lead to a person not been able to function properly. The person’s ability to function deteriorates over a period of time and is usually at least 6 months before positive diagnosis of dementia can be made. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases such as Alzheimer’s which is the most common of dementia, vascular which is a series of mini strokes,
Alzheimer’s can be diagnosed before age 65, although rare, and is caused by a mutation in 3 known genes. About 5 percent of those who are under 65 and possess the ailment have AD in their family history. Given that the symptoms of AD are caused by plaque in the brain, causing loss of nerve cells that help the body communicate with the brain, mutations to these genes; amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, and presenilin 2 cause a excessive production of certain proteins (primarily a B-42 form of amyloid protein), and therefore spark an excessive growth of plaque cells which are toxic to the neurons of the brain. For those cases of Alzheimer’s that occur after age 65, a genetic mutation has yet to be proven, although some may be linked, to the fact that a difference may cause an increased chance of developing the ailment. Whatever the case may be for patients over 65 years old, the disease and its symptoms are caused by neurofibrillary tangles of almyloid plaques. It is impossible for someone to test positive for Alzheimer’s Disease, because the only way to determine an affirmative case i...
People with dementia may have problems with short-term memory, keeping track of their belongings, keeping up with plans, remembering appointments or travel dates. Many dementias are progressive. This means that symptoms start out slowly and gradually get worse with time. Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia are diagnosed based on careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day function and behavior related to each
Alzheimer’s is a result from a combination of factors that cause progressive brain deterioration that affects the memory and behavior of an individual. There are two known risk factors. The first risk factor is age. Alzheimer’s usually affects people older than 60, and rarely affects those younger than 40. The average age
In the 17th and the 19th century dementia was synonymous with insanity. Still many knew that people with this disease suffered from permanent damage that was irreversible unlike mental disorders where the brain remains intact (2006). Dementia was often known as senile which is common with old age. Studies through the years have shown that it is much more serious and causes damage to areas of the brain. Alois Alzheimer in 1910 noticed tangles, plaques, and arterio...
Butcher, Mineka, and Hooley (2013) described dementia as a progressive disorder that displays a deterioration of functioning and has a gradual onset. There are many different disorders that are known to cause dementia. Butcher et al. (2013) stated some of the causes to be strokes, infectious diseases, dietary deficiencies, head trauma, and degenerative brain diseases. The most common, and notable cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease (Butcher et. al., 2013).
While there is little difference between dementia and Alzheimer it is important to distinguish the two. Dementia is, “ a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life” (Alzheimer Association, 2014). While Alzheimer is, “is a ...
One of the most common problems in elders is dementia. The Alzheimer’s Association describes dementia as a range of symptoms rather than just one single specific disease. The symptoms of dementia range from memory loss as well as a decline in thinking skills to severe symptoms that lead to the decline of that person’s ability to perform activities of daily living (What
According to (Miller, 2009), dementia is the most accurate expression which illustrates the development of cognitive impairment. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬It exemplifies the diverse brain anarchies which ultimately lead to severe brain dysfunction (Alzheimer Australia, 2011). Dementia is the leading cause of disability in older adults in Australia accounting for 17 percent of the cases (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004). Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VD), Frontotemporal Dementia (FD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) are the well known forms of this disease. This usually occurs in older adults aged above 65; however it is a disability and not a normal symptom of aging. Chances of inheritability are present but it depends on the individual and the type of dementia (Alzheimer Australia, 2011). The Global Deterioration Scale provides a detailed explanation regarding the seven stages of cognitive decline in Dementia (Alzheimer’s Association of Canada, 2005).
Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia, “a brain disorder that seriously affects a person’s ability to carry out daily activities (Shenk 14)”. Alzheimer’s is a progressive and irreversible brain disorder that slowly destroys a person’s memory and ability to learn, make judgments, communicate, and accomplish daily activities. As Alzheimer’s progresses, individuals may also experience changes in personality and behavior, such as anxiety, suspiciousness or aggravation, as well as illusions or hallucinations.
Alzheimer disease generally occurs in people over seventy five years of age; however it does strike people in their forties, fifties, and sixties, but this is rare. When Alzheimer’s disease occurs prior to the age of sixty five, it is referred to as early onset Alzheimer’s.
Dementia is common in older adults and may develop gradually or even suddenly. Dementia is very common and is used as an umbrella term to describe a wide range of symptoms. It is also important to note that, “Dementia is more prevalent in older adults with the rate doubling about every 5 years after the age of 75 (Erber,2005; Papalia et al.,1996)” (Davis, Gfeller, & Thaut, 2008). Dementia
Dementia is an acquired clinical disorder that affects loss of brain cells, causing a gradual onset and the continued decline of higher cognitive functioning. This damage interferes with how parts of the brain cells communicate with one another. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Dementia is classified in two categories: reversible and irreversible. Reversible dementia can be the result of a medication reaction, metabolic disturbances, emotional distress, infections, and nutritional deficiencies. These, however, are treatable and should be identified early if suspected to avoid lasting side effects. Unlike degenerative (irreversible) dementia, it is common to any age group. Irreversible dementia is the broadened classification for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. These tend to only affect the older population, people over sixty-five. As the disease worsens, people have problems with short-term memory loss, like forgetting things they have said or done, even though they can often recall events that happen...