Shaw and Eichbaum (2008) use examples of economic growth as a positive, and reducing child abuse as a negative. Whether a positive aim or negative aim, the end goal is to bring about betterment for the country as a whole. Majone (1989) has a different view to Shaw and Eichbaum as to the reas... ... middle of paper ... ...1) describes the importance of the ‘precautionary principle’ in policy analysis where prevention is seen as being better than a cure. This is demonstrated by a number of policies including the Bergen Declaration (ECE), Rio Declaration and “Maastricht Treaty” where measures must be taken to avoid any environmental degradation. When used in policy analysis, the precautionary principle allows for analysts to move away from reactive policies that attempt to undo damage that has already occurred to the environment, towards a more sustainable system of preventing the damage occurring in the first place.
The applicability of the concept in relation to the above enumerated aspects are briefly discussed below. Resilience and the environment Environmentally, resilience has been viewed with the notion of an ecosystem with the capacity to absorb alterations but still able to exist and it is emphasised that resilience and stability are crucial properties of the ecosystem (Holling 1973 cited McAslan 2010). However, there are two distinct aspects when considering performance of a system and the effectiveness of each
Only effective control of desertification, economic development is sustainable; only achieve poverty alleviation, people will consciously safeguard the achievements in combating desertification. So, compared to only consider combating desertification, which is a positive and effective way. Visible only to find a developing country can protect the environment, but also bring economic benefits of the method, the poverty resides in protecting the environment, the protection of the environment in which resides in poverty, in order to embark on economic and environmental coordination broad road .This is developing choice! This is the inevitable choice for developing countries!
“Planet” represents a proactive approach with regard to the natural environment. Companies have to contribute to solving environmental problems on which they have or may have influence. Finally, “Profit” is about creating economic value by producing goods and providing services. It is very important to keep the Triple Bottom Line in balance. When the focus is on one element only, the other two elements will suffer.
Amidst the waning of cultural influences, ‘Ecological Modernization’ emerged. Ecological Modernization is a way of thinking that finds technology and innovation integrated into environmental policies, similar to ‘eco-efficient innovation’ that uses environment-friendly technologies to enhance productivity of a product. Two of the main forces that drive Ecological Modernization are: “The role of ‘smart’ government regulation [and the] growing business risks for polluters in the context of multi-level environmental governance.” These two forces can be simplified to the fact that in order for change to happen on such a large scale, the supportive government legislature must be involved.
Sustainable development is an attempt to combine environmental issues with socio-economic issues (Hopwood et al., 2005), this therefore encompasses the ideas of ecological boundaries and a solid social foundation. Sustainable development Sustainability was first looked at because of concerns about environmental degradation due to the poor management of resources. With an increased interest in the world and its environment; sustainability became an important goal to achieve (McKenzie, 2004). At first, sustainability was looked at from only the ecological perspective but this is no longer the case (Dempsey, 2011). Sustainability is about the movement in social institutions towards more equity in the way of meeting the needs within and between generations (Hirsch Hadorn, 2006).
The contingency theory gives the priority to the reactive adaptation where as it ignore the opportunity which impact environment of an organization. The role of the contingency theory is observing the operation through its structure that fits in the environment. Similarly, contingency theory helps an organization to select and shape. Mintzberg describes contingency theory as a dynamic process because it is both managerial and environmental forces. This theory shows in multiple ways on context of strategic management and environmental interaction (Lewin & Volberda, 2005).
Just like any other discipline, the pragmatist maxim has its own rule. It clarifies the contents of a hypothesis by tracing their ‘practical consequence’. This maxim application helps us understand the concept of truth (Christopher., 201... ... middle of paper ... ...be far from really getting recognition that can better the world. From a pragmatic view we must keep experimenting ways in which we can make the environment better in a way that can suit us best. Pragmatism can tell us what is needed, and it by all means tries to maximise participation in governing, it is closely related to the ideals of social ecology movement (Jinkins., 2011).
But his theories themselves by rule should alleviate some corruption at least with respect to Sachs’ top-down mechanism. Accountability for aid’s success should in theory stop corruption, because independent evaluation of aid agencies, would make possible rewards for findings things that work and redirection of money to do more of those things. Thus, corruption would be limited as officials implement transparent policies that have to prove to their own people they work and improve their lives. Furthermore, the people are empowered to provide feedback to aid agencies within Easterly’s model. Fjeldstad and Isaksen (2008) argues that by rule an empowered population demands accountability.
Utilitarianism The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development, including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk the future in the sake of gains in the present.