DNA Fingerprinting And PCR

1046 Words3 Pages

Michael Beirne
Mrs. Parks
Honors Biology
11 April 2014
DNA Fingerprinting and PCR
DNA fingerprinting, or sometimes known as DNA typing, is isolating and developing images of sequences of DNA to evaluate the DNA in an individual’s cells. DNA fingerprinting today is used for many different things in many different areas of science. In forensic science, DNA typing can determine which person did which crime by using blood or skin left at a crime scene. In medical science, patients can find out who their siblings, parents, or children are by using DNA fingerprinting (webmd).
It was in 1984 when Alec Jeffreys, a British geneticist, discovered that specific sequences of DNA did not add to the function of a gene but were still constant throughout it. (Britannica). Jeffreys called these minisatellites and determined that each individual organism had a unique arrangement of minisatellites (Britannica). In the early uses of DNA fingerprinting, it was only used for identifying genetic diseases and disorders but people quickly realized that it could be used in many different areas of science (hubpages). Years after the discovery of DNA fingerprinting, it had been used to solve the first immigration case, the first paternity case, and even helped identify the first identical twins (le.ac.uk). The first methods of DNA fingerprinting were accurate, but you would have had needed to acquire a large amount of DNA. Over time, the advancement of science has led to major advances that formed the basis of DNA profiling techniques. These newer methods are still used today and allow scientist to use skin, blood, semen, and hair to gather DNA (le.ac.uk). In 1988 DNA fingerprinting was used for the first time in a criminal investigation. Timothy Spe...

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...eloped research that displays that as many as four percent of DNA matches in forensic laboratories have been in fault (legal-dictionary).
Gene mapping is currently being used to identify genes that can put people at risk for illness and to help the development of new medicines. Scientists hope to use gene mapping to lead to advancement in medicines, the treatment to disease, and its aid in disease prevention. Genetic mapping was the initial step in the Human Genome Project (human genome project). The Human Genome Project identified thousands of DNA sequences and located important standards they called landmarks. Scientist use these landmarks to tell them where each fragment of DNA came from. These maps would be used to locate sick genes, diseases, or abnormal genes (genome.gov). Two types of genetic maps are constructed: linkage mapping and physical mapping.

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