Serology is a science that has become outdated but helped prosecutors narrow down suspects. It ultimately led to the development of DNA testing, the culprit for its demise. Edmund Locard was the innovator behind the concept of trace evidence and how particles can be compared microscopically to help in crime solving. All of these aspects of forensics potentially led to the development of DNA testing and laid the groundwork for future expansion.
From cases such as OJ Simpson to Chandra Levy, DNA profiling also called DNA fingerprinting or DNA typing has played a major role in the criminal justice system. The law enforcement community uses DNA profiling to rule out or identify suspects. Unlike hair microscopy, bite mark comparisons, shoe print comparisons, and firearm tool mark analysis, DNA typing has been developed through massive scientific research and has undergone meticulous scientific evaluation (Innocence Project). DNA is a foolproof method of identifying a perpetrator of a crime. Like fingerprints, DNA is unique, with the exception of identical twins; no two people have the same DNA.
Now DNA forensics can expose a person’s gender, race, susceptibility to diseases, and even propensity for high aggression or drug abuse (Butler, 2011). More importantly, the certainty of DNA evidence is extremely powerful in court. Astounded at this technology’s almost perfect accuracy, the FBI changed the name of its Serology Unit to the DNA Analysis Unit in 1988 when they began accepting requests for DNA comparisons (Using DNA to Solve Crimes, 2014). There are thirteen standard tandem repeats used in modern forensics, and together these sequences create a DNA profile. Except in the case of identical twins, the probability that two people have the same genetic code at all thirteen core loci is less than one in one trillion (Jones, 2004).
Advances in Science and Genetic Research have significantly impacted the criminal justice system. With the development of programs aimed at utilizing biological or genetic samples collected from potential suspects of a crime, investigators are able to compare the samples against samples collected from the crime scene. One of the most widely-known programs, the Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System (CODIS), was developed as a law enforcement resource to compare new samples of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the registered DNA samples of “convicted offenders, unsolved crime scene evidence, and missing persons across local, State, and national databases” (Office of Justice Programs, 2011). Scientific and government research identifies the program’s efficacy is a result of the increasing number of criminal case closures from cross-referencing suspect DNA samples against samples in the DNA database. Alternately, there is equal concern for the efficiency and effectiveness of utilizing the CODIS program in criminal investigations, based on the overwhelming backlog of collected and unregistered samples.
Introduction Identification of an individual as the source of a DNA profile in a criminal case using the PCR method has become a reliable tool investigators use. The profiles generated for forensic purposes gives important information about the questions revolving around who’s DNA is found at a ... ... middle of paper ... ... amount of product from inhibited DNA. The samples will then be amplified using the ABI Prism 7000 and analyzed using the 3130 Genetic Analyzer. Statistics The proposed study data set is a repeated measurement of the same thing and can be described as ordinal data which describes categories with importance in order. The purification methods can be ranked from providing the most to least STR DNA data.
DNA Testing and the Conviction of Criminals There have been many incidents where cases have needed a solid prosecution in order to convict the defendant in a murder or rape case. This is where DNA Testing comes in to help. By taking a DNA test, a person can be found guilty or not guilty. If a person claims they have been raped there can be a sperm sample taken from the suspect in order to prove that he is guilty or not. In addition, in a murder case there can be blood taken from the suspect so they can tell of his innocence.
Victimology requires the investigator to create a profile of the victim, which in turn can give clues as to the identity of the cri... ... middle of paper ... ...ems that could be wrong with the criminal. All in all, these elements in criminal profiling have helped it become what it is today. Works Cited Turvey, Brent. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. 2nd.
All states collect DNA from convicted felony offenders, but many have passed bills t... ... middle of paper ... .../billtext.xpd?bill=h111-4614 Kravets, D. (2010). Wired. Retrieved from Obama Supports DNA Sampling Upon Arrest: http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/03/obama-supports-dna-sampling-upon-arrest/ Office of the Inspector General. (2010). Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory’s Forensic DNA Case Backlog.
Is creating a policy in the United States that demand DNA from suspects helps in finding subsequent criminals or is it just leading to a track and trace policy? The Collection and Retention of DNA The collection of DNA in an investigation is used most often to determine who the perpetrator(s) might be in a crime. There has been a rapid growth since its inception and legal and ethical issues have arisen. In the Double –Helix Double-Edged ... ... middle of paper ... ...he Council of Europe on The European Convention on Human Rights and its Five Protocols. This document encompasses the Preamble and Articles on Human Rights laws.