This paper will exam aspects of correlational design. According to Fabiano-Smith (2011), correlational designs are non-experimental research designs that focus on observing variables as they naturally exist. Since this design type is non-experimental, one of its major disadvantages is the focus on the relationship of the variables and not is cause and effect between the variables. Despite this weakness, correlational design does have several strengths. It observes the variables as they occur in a natural setting without manipulation. Researchers often use the initial establishment of correlational relationships between variables to identify what variables should be further studied for cause and effect utilizing experimental designs.
Why was correlational design chosen? Two of the three studies chosen indicated that there was very little empirical data available for their specific area of study. Establishing correlational relationships is a logical way to identify independent variables for experimental cause and effect research. McDuffie, Yoder, and Stone (2005) indicated that there was no empirical data available on their study of autism and pre-linguistic predictors of vocabulary. Researchers on the effectiveness of patient communications and interactions reported that previous studies did not specifically ask patients how they felt about their care (Shelton & Shryock 2007). Both of these statements make the choice of a correlational study the obvious jumping off point for research. The third study identified a need to clarify symbolic play as a possible independent variable since past studies had lumped symbolic and functional play into a category together (O’Toole & Chiat, 2006).
Was it possible to use a...
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...sly used APA, and the educational year first exposed to APA. The dependant variable would be the APA portion of the grade on papers. If a correlation is shown between low comfort level or exposure and low grades it might be possible to have the students pre-identified via a survey for either self enrollment in APA style tutorial classes or self study on the APA citation method. A correlational between year of first exposure and low grades might indicate that APA needs to be stressed more in earlier writing classes. If no correlation is found, students who self identify as not very familiar with or comfortable with this writing style could then be pointed towards APA study resources earlier in the semester to catch up. This study could help students get ahead with their knowledge base so they are not learning and correcting while writing actual graded papers.
Throughout the history of the United States and including the western world. Corrections have served the country by convicting and sentencing offenders depending on the seriousness of the crime. Along with that today, offenders are either placed in probation, incarcerated or taken to community-based corrections. Even though, corrections have always tried to find ways to deter crime by correcting criminals, the poor economy in our country has been the cause for struggles in the correctional system. Some of the causes of economic issues are the cut of budget, over crowing, lack of programs for people with mental illnesses, and lack of innovation.
Please refer to my below emails, which have been sent to & received my NOMS in recent months. I would firstly like to thank your organisation for seeing that my step-father: Stephen Chambers- Prisoner Number: A6333DK received the books in question. Secondly, I am sincerely grateful that I have seen evidence of accountability in the Prison system from NOMS; I must admit I had felt that I had reached a brick wall that was not penetrable. Unfortunately however, I am saddened to say, that despite my previous emails of concern; the problems at Wandsworth Prison are more worrying that I had previously thought.
Correctional ideologies have contributed greatly to the present correctional trends in the United States. With all of the correctional ideologies contributing in some way, some greater than others, the United States corrections has seen many problems. One such problem is the steady increase in incarceration rates. In result, the prison facilities have become overcrowded and hard to manage. As Dawe from New York City’s Department of Corrections said, “We are so understaffed and so overcrowded across our prisons, it’s miraculous that we can handle it,”(New Week Global, 2014). In fact, according to the American Federation of Government Employees, Federally-operated facilities have grown by 41% while correctional workers have only increased by 19% (New Week Global, 2014). The increase in the prison population rates is due to five contributing factors: (1) increased arrests and more likely incarceration, (2) tougher sentencing, (3) prison construction, (4) the war on drugs, and (5) state and local politics.
The “Tough on Crime” and “War on Drugs” policies of the 1970s – 1980s have caused an over populated prison system where incarceration is policy and assistance for prevention was placed on the back burner. As of 2005, a little fewer than 2,000 prisoners are being released every day. These individuals have not gone through treatment or been properly assisted in reentering society. This has caused individuals to reenter the prison system after only a year of being release and this problem will not go away, but will get worst if current thinking does not change. This change must be bigger than putting in place some under funded programs that do not provide support. As the current cost of incarceration is around $30,000 a year per inmate, change to the system/procedure must prevent recidivism and the current problem of over-crowed prisons.
The exact time and location of the world’s first actual prison is unknown, but obviously at some point in time incarceration within a prison system became a common consequence for criminal activities. Schmalleger writes that punitive imprisonment appeared to have been introduced in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries for debtors and certain offenders against canon law (Schmalleger, 2009). In those decades penalties for criminal activities dealt more with shaming the offender in hopes of deterring them from future criminal activity. Examples of shaming include the ducking stool, the pillory, whipping, branding, and the stocks (History of the Prison Systems). In addition to the various forms of shaming and deterring, the death penalty was a common punishment for criminal activity, such as hangings, stoning, or burning. Within these decades, prisons were occasionally used as an alternative to corporal punishment. However, as years went on society’s view of an individual’s liberties and humanity were changing thus changing the views of how criminal acts should be handled changed as well. Schmalleger writes that near the end of the eighteenth century is when the concept of imprisonment as punishment reached its fullest expression. The prisons that had been established and continually altered in the United States eventually become models for European reformers that were in hopes of creating a prison system that would humanize criminal punishment (Schmalleger, 2009). The concept was that restricting a person’s liberty would be retribution enough, and that an exact period of time served in a prison could be assigned depending on the severity of a crime committed (Prison History). Early prisons came in the forms of ...
In final analysis, this research project looks to provide a new way of understanding the current prison situation and its various manifestations. A comprehensive report of how things might be for those closely involved in the punishment and rehabilitation process might enable policy-makers and the public alike to change their ideas and help them perceive what it might mean to be in the position of officers or prisoners. The higher objective of this project will be to bring, through new knowledge, the necessary reforms that could leave both the taxpayer and those in the prison system more satisfied.
Over 2 million people incarcerated in the United States of America, it does sounds like a lot of people, however, with nearly 350,000,000 million people in the United States of America, it makes that number sound a little smaller. Fact, society is violent, and has always been violent, furthermore, will always be violent, the question we should ask is, do we pay now, or ten fold later? Many factors come into play when dealing with the criminal justice system, in regards to, the incarceration of the people who cannot live amongst us. With so many people incarcerated, society is faced with two complex issues, “Mandatory Sentencing” and “Building more Prisons”. However, these issues are much broader than just locking up the “Bad Guys”
Serving time is not a waste of time. While an inmate is incarcerated, he or she has every opportunity to better themselves and prepare for their impending re-entry into society. Jails and prisons alike offer rehabilitative programs. These programs allow every inmate an equal opportunity to return to the outside world as a better and more productive member of society. Educational, vocational training, work release, drug-abuse, self-help, health care, religious, and finally recreational programs are just a few of the hundreds of correctional programs that inmates can participate in. Due to these programs, positive changes within an inmates life, as well as drastic changes in our society, are entirely within reach.
Rehabilitation is firmly entrenched in the history of corrections in the United States. Penitentiaries, for example were formed in 1820 with the belief that offenders could be morally reformed (Cullen, & Jonson, 2012, pp. 27-28). In 1870). The National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline documented the merits of rehabilitation (Wines, 1871, p. 457). However, by the end of the 1960s, the United States had experienced several years of discontent within its prison systems which resulted in a national call for prison reform and the development of a disillusionment with rehabilitation (Martinson, 1974, p. 22). In 1966, Robert Martinson was hired to evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation, the result of which was his infamous “What Works?” paper, in which he posits that empirical evidence does not support rehabilitation (p. 23). By the mid-1970s, correctional policy shifted from one emphasizing rehabilitation to one emphasizing just desserts/retribution, deterrence and incapacitation (Cullen, & Jonson, 2012, p. 22). The result of these “get-tough” policies, which sought to control crime through strict laws and lengthy sentences, was unprecedented growth in our custodial population, which we can no longer support, either financially or spatially (p. 1).
Experimental designs are viewed as the most accurate, and most demanding of research designs, requiring strict attention to rules and procedures. Researchers use these research designs to manipulate and control testing procedures as a way to understand a cause and effect relationship. Commonly, independent variables are manipulated to judge or decide their effect on a dependent variable (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008).
The correctional system has three main goals: punish, protect the community and rehabilitate the offender. However, it is unclear how well the modern U.S correctional system achieves these goals and whether the money invested in the correctional system might be better spent. These are some of the points I will cover regarding what I think about the correctional system.
Overcrowding in prisons across the United States has been a controversial issue that needs to be more of a concern for the criminal justice system. In essence, prison overcrowding is a common social phenomenon in modern times- a phenomenon that occurs if and when the demand for prisoner space in prisons in a particular jurisdiction exceeds the capacity that the jurisdiction can provide to hold the prisoners. Prison overcrowding is felt more when the number of prisoners being incarcerated and admitted into prisons exceeds the number of prisoners being released or die- this would free up some prison space to cater for incoming prisoners. One of the major reasons as to why prisons are overcrowded is the tyranny in the judicial systems
Throughout this paper, one will obtain a better understanding of the correctional system and how it is an important aspect of the criminal justice system. Therefore, the history of corrections, their mission statement, and sentencing goals will be briefly discussed. In the correctional system, there are different alternatives to imprisonment, such as probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions. I believe that parole makes a significant impact on the criminal justice system because it gives inmates who have already served time and shown good behavior the opportunity to be released early from prison. For example, there are two primary models of parole. First, the parole board grants a prisoner their parole based on their judgement
The main goal of prison systems needs to be rehabilitation of the prisoners and their reintroduction into the world. We only need to keep the ones who are very dangerous to society or are serving a life sentence locked up to keep others safe. All prisons need to work under strict orders of what they can and cannot do. We need people to be turned around and benefit society, The putative benefits of more incarceration or longer sentences are actually costs(Furman 1). There needs to be prisons for holding people for the rest of their lives, and prisons to help rehabilitate people to join the world who realize that they made a mistake and need a second chance in life. We can no longer function with this single prison system, there is just too
In "Prison Studies" Malcolm X briefly details how, during his incarceration, he embarked on a process of self-education that forever changed him and the course of his life. Malcolm writes of his determination to learn to read and write, born out of his envy and emulation of Bimbi, a fellow prisoner. His innate curiosity, sense of pride, and ambition to learn and be someone of substance motivated him to study relentlessly. As he learned more about the world he developed a great thirst for knowledge that left him with a lifelong desire that only his continued studies could satisfy. He believed that prison offered him the best possible situation in which to educate himself.