EBSCOHost. University at Albany Library, Albany. 11 November 2002. Schlichter, Sarah, et al. Chile: “Women Win Right to Emergency Contraception.” Off Our Backs (September-October 2002): 9.
The Female Circumcision Controversy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001. Mackie, Gerry. "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account." American Sociological Review.
Literary Anatomies: Women's Bodies and Health in Literature. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994. Women's Information Exchange. "Feminism Defined." December 7, 2001. http://electrapages.com/FEMINIST.htm Wood, Ann Douglas.
Philadephia, PA: U of Pennsylvania P, 2006. Print. Pg 2-3 Cummings, Nina and Andrea Parrot, eds. Forsaken Females The Global Brualization of Women. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006.
Female genital mutilation: proposals for change (Rev. and updated ed.). London: Minority Rights Group. Resnik, D. B. U.S. Department of Health and Human Servies, (2011). What is ethics in research & why is it important?.
Health consequences of female genital mutilation. Reviews in Gynaecological Practice, 4(4), 242-251. Smith, C. (2011). Who Defines "Mutilation"? Challenging Imperialism in the Discourse of Female Genital Cutting.
The doctors must then refuse to practice FGM in their communities, as well as educate their people on the medical risks and harmful results of undergoing FGM. The last argument is the profit find behind the FC/FMG practice. A woman’s honor is contingent upon her participation in this traditional initiation. Girls report a feeling of being alone and ashamed if they are not circumcised. Castledine states that, “Because of its association with purity, young women who have not been excised have little chance of marriage in the countries where FGM is practiced.” Thus, some girls ask to be circumcised while others are dragged by their family.
“Socio-cultural Dynamics of Female Genital Cutting: Research Findings, Gaps, and Directions” Culture, Health and Sexuality 7:429-441. Toubia,Naeid. 1994. “Female Circumcision as a Public Health Issue” The New England Journal of Medicine Sept:712-716.
Mason, Marcia L. Sept. 1995. HTTP://WWW.WORLDCITIZEN.ORG/ISSUES 2. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: AN INTRODUCTION. National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers FGM Awareness and Education Project. Box 2512 San Anselmo, CA 94979 3.
Huffington Post. Accessed online at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/carina-kolodny/female-genital-mutilation_4_b_4734728.html Kopelman, L. M. (2000). 15: Female Genital Circumcision and Conventionalist Ethical Relativism. In , Globalizing Feminist Bioethics (p. 219). Perseus Books, LLC.