Female Genital Mutilation Female Genital Mutilation is believed to have started in Egypt 2,000 years ago and spread from there. Only a few years ago, FGM was considered a cultural tradition, but now the United Nations has labeled it as a violation of human rights. Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States has declared Female Genital Mutilation grounds for seeking asylum and is a punishable offense (1). Many of us never heard of Female Genital Mutilation until the story of Kauziya Kasinga, a woman from West Africa. Her father did not believe in polygamy, forced marriage, or "female circumcision". He died when she was 17 and the father's sister inherited the home, banished the mother, ended Fauziya's schooling, and arranged a marriage as a fourth wife to a man she had never met. The aunt scheduled her for the circumcision and she ran with 3,000 dollars that one of her aunts had saved. What is female circumcision? The female genital mutilation term covers three main varieties of genital mutilation (2). There is the "sunna circumcision"; this consists of removal of the prepuce and/or the tip of the clitoris. Ironically, sunna in Arabic means "tradition". This is done because it is believed that the clitoris is a very dangerous part of the female anatomy. In our culture, Freud stated in his book, Sexuality and the Psychology of Love, that the "elimination of clitoral sexuality is a necessary precondition for the development of femininity. In 1979, the "Love Surgery" was performed on women in the United Sates. Dr. James Burt, the "Love Surgeon", introduced "clitoral relocation" (sunna circumcision) to the medical field. He believed and acted upon the idea that excision does not prevent sexual pleasure, but enhances it. Dr. Burt practiced in Ohio for almost ten years before he was exposed after which he gave up his license. Clitoridectomy, also referred to as excision, removes the entire clitoris and the removal of the labia. Thirdly, there is a procedure called an infibulation. This is the most extreme form of circumcision, it consists of the removal of the clitoris, the labia, and the joining of the scraped sides of the vulva across the vagina, where they are secured with thorns or sewn with thread. A small opening is kept to allow passage of urine and menstrual blood. A woman with this type of circumcision must be cut ... ... middle of paper ... ...is "absolutely certain that if similar tortures were inflicted on boy children the whole world would rise up to stop it by all means". Works Cited 1. Atrocities Against Women: Female Genital Mutilation. Mason, Marcia L. Sept. 1995. HTTP://WWW.WORLDCITIZEN.ORG/ISSUES 2. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: AN INTRODUCTION. National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers FGM Awareness and Education Project. Box 2512 San Anselmo, CA 94979 3. Female Genital Mutilation. http://www.hollyfeld.org 4. Female Genital Mutilation. http://www.hollyfeld.org 5. Associated Press Article, Feb 1998, web site found at http://www.feminist.org/news/newsbyte/february98/0218.html 6. Female Mutilation in Africa, Middle East and Far East; anon. http://www.religioustolerance.org/fem_cirm.htm 7. ABU-SAHLIEH Sami, "To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision: available online at Http://wwwhollyfeld.org 8. Nawal El-Saadawi, "The Hidden Face of Eve, Women in the Arab World," translated and edited by Sherif Hettata, Zed Press, London, 1980, pg.33 9. The Women's Watch, Spring 1996 Vol. 22 No. 2, pg.44-49. Fran Hosken, Editor.
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Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) has had different definitions in the ‘Scientific World’ and the world of those who embrace the act. According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), Female Genital Mutilation is the act of removing the external parts of the female genitalia, partially or totally for non-medical reasons (WHO) whereas the practitioners see it as the cutting of “extra skin tags” of the female’s reproductive organ. Various reasons have been put forward to support it, ranging from social, cultural and religious reasons, mainly in the so called Islamic communities. FGM is a violation of the rights of the girl child, causes health implications and drastically disempowers the sexuality of women.
Female genital mutilation is a heartbreaking practice which violates basic human rights and must be banned worldwide. FGM it's a operation on which the clitoris and genitals are completely cut off. Referring to (www.mtholyoke.edu) The cause of this procedure may fluctuate it can be either for family honor, virginity protection, religion, or excessive sexual satisfaction for their partner. Also, this is done by traditional midwives with no medical experience, no anesthesia, or any drug. The tools used for this practice are pieces of glass, knives, scissors, razors and other sharp basics.
Female Genital Mutilation, shortened to FGM in most medical texts, is “collective name given to several different traditional practices that involve the cutting of female genitals.” FGM is a common cultural practice in many parts of the world, especially Africa and Asia that was established hundreds of years ago. There are many different types of FGM, ranging from clitoridectomy, to cutting and infibulations (Skaine 7). Even though these procedures are accepted in the areas they are practiced, FGM has become a human rights discussion resurfacing in recent years because the procedures serve no purpose. Female Genital Mutilation is an unethical practice that should be outlawed throughout the entire world.
"Did you know that 125 million women have experienced female genital mutilation worldwide, and 3 million girls estimate at risk of the procedure each year"? (Facts to End FGM). Female genital mutilation is a procedure for females that implicates partial or total removal of the female genital organs. This procedure intentionally alters or causes injury to the female that can have short and long-term health risks with no benefits. In recent years, the practice of female genital mutilation has been increasingly in the news, generating a complex debate about cultural norms and the worth of sexual functioning (Nussbaum 13). Female genital mutilation is known in terms such as female circumcision and female genital cutting. Female circumcision is the action or traditional practices of cutting off the clitoris and sometimes the labia of girls or young women. FGM contemplates as a dull violation of human rights for women and girls. There are four types of FGM operations. The first type is excision or removal of the clitoral hood, that is either with or without removal of parts or all of the clitoris. The second type is the removal of the clitoris together with parts or all the labia minora. The third type is the removal of or all the external genitalia. The fourth type is a variety of procedures that includes, scraping or cutting of the vagina and surrounding tissues. "The World Health Organization estimates that overall, in today's world between 85 and 115 million women have had such operations" (Nussbaum 13).
The use of the term mutilation, rather than possible substitutes (cutting, circumcision, ablation, etc.) has been a topic of debate for researchers and scholars alike. We decided to use mutilation, as we wanted to follow the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition. The WHO defines female genital mutilation as “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” (World Health Organization, 2013). This broad definition encompasses four types of operations: circumcision, excision, infibulation and intermediate (Dorkenoo & Elworthy, 2006). It is common for FGM to be practiced most commonly on infant and adolescence girls; we find this to be problematic as the girls do not have the ability to choose to undergo in the ritual of FGM, it is family members and community pressure that decide. Literature has shown that FGM is most prevalent in African countries, and often in unsafe conditions. However, this act has become more of a global issue, mainly because of immigration to outside countries, including Canada (Dorkenoo & Elworthy...
Female genital circumcision (FGC) is a cultural ritual that is performed to the vast majority of women within the countries of Sudan, Kenya, Mali, Benin, Togo, and parts of the Middle East. Female genital circumcision also termed as female genital mutilation is used based upon a person’s beliefs. This ritual has been highly controversial for many years especially in the western society, due to the health risks that women may have to go through. Doctor Gruenbaum, and anthropologist who studied FGC in Sudan, has researched this topic and believes that outsiders need to have an open mind about diverse cultures. I believe that this procedure should not be illegal; however, education about the risks of the procedure should be enforced in the countries where this takes place, in order to create a safer environment for the ritual to be performed in. The goal of this essay is to know what Female Genital Circumcision is and different types of FGC and why this is performed and why it is important for outsiders to not have ethnocentric views when dealing with this. This essay also deals with why it should be medicalized instead of enforcing laws to ban this years long tradition in all African countries. When challenging female genital circumcision, we are also challenging the people who perform this procedure, their culture, values and beliefs.
A hot button issue in our society over the years has been the topic of male and female circumcision. This issue has been portrayed in both ethical and political paradigms. “It is estimated that about 30% of males are circumcised worldwide for religious, cultural, and health reasons, most of whom live in major parts of the Middle East, Central Asia, West Africa and Israel, as well as in the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand,” according to Demuth (1). Male circumcision is the medical process of the removal of the foreskin that covers the head of the penis. In continuation, the article “Prevalence of Female Genital Cutting among Egyptian Girls,” estimates that between “100 and 130 million girls and women now alive in at least 28 African countries and the Middle East have been subjected to female circumcision or female genital mutilation (FGM)” stated by Tag-Eldin (3). The female genital mutilation is a bit different than a male’s circumcision, generally consisting of three types. “Type 1 is the removal of the clitoris, Type 2 is the removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, and Type 3 is the removal of all parts of the external genitalia, which includes: the clitoris, the labia minora/majora, and then sewing the rest of the tissues,” according to Pauls (4). The origin of circumcision is currently unknown, but according to the article “Circumcision”, there is a theory that in Ancient Egypt, Egyptians men were circumcised and eliminated all of their body hair for probably hygienic reasons. In addition, in the “Book of the Dead” it describes the sun god, Ra, to have circumcised himself (40). This suggests that it may have also been for religious reasons.
How do you end a tradition that a culture has had around for centuries? Every culture has a different and original tradition. What happens though when the tradition is a horrible and painful one? Female Circumcision is a procedure that is a tradition to many cultures. The purpose of this procedure is to make women stay faithful to their husbands and not become promiscuous, as they get older. This procedure is not safe and has many side effects. Female Circumcision is a shocking procedure that cause women pain and suffering for the rest of their lives.
Female circumcision (sometimes known as Female Genital Mutilation or female genital cutting) has been exercised in many different forms, in many different countries, for a long period of time. Female circumcision is defined as an operation performed to the female genital area that causes harm and changes the organ for no medical reason. Cultural, religious, and social factors are the main causes to FGM, and is mostly practiced on female infants up to the age of 15. This procedure does not benefit any female’s health whatsoever. The majority of people who practice female circumcision are those living in Africa. Coming from an African culture, where people participate in harsh practices such as female circumcision is a huge issue that needs to
Female Genital Mutilation also called FGM is a destructive operation. The procedure consists of the female genitals being partly or entirely removed or injured with the goals of inhibiting a woman’s sexual feelings. Before the girls hit puberty is usually when it is performed. This often happens to girls between the age of four and eight, but recently it is increasingly performed on nurslings who are only a couple of days, weeks or months old. The female clitoris is anatomically analogous to the male penis and plays a central role in women’s sexuality. The equivalent of mutilation performed on the male will be amputation in various degrees of the penis. In its comparable extreme form, of the penis will be stitched together so as to make sexual intercourse and other bodily functions difficult. Many people are concerned because of the human rights and health issues that are involved in it. FGM is a human rights issue because it constitutes an unacceptable violation of the rights of the girl, child, and adult women to their natural sexuality. International human right covenants underscore the obligations of the United Nations member States to ensure the protection and promotion of human rights, including the rights to non-discrimination to integrity of the person and to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.
FGM originated in Africa. It was, and remains, a cultural, not a religious practice. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is also known as female circumcision is performed on young women before they reach puberty. There are three types of FGM practiced. One is Sunna circumcision in which the tip of the clitoris and/or its covering (prepuce) are removed, Clitoridectomy where the entire clitoris, the prepuce and adjacent labia are removed, and Infibulation (a.k.a. Pharaonic circumcision) which is a clitoridectomy followed by sewing up of the vulva. Only a small opening is left to allow urine and menstrual blood to pass. In all types of FGM, the vagina is sown up until the female is ready to have sexual intercourse with her spouse or give birth to a child. The remaining sides of the vulva are stitched together to close up the vagina, except for a small opening, which is preserved with slivers of wood or matchsticks. This leaves them with reduced or no sexual feeling. Orgasms are sometimes impossible to experience later in life. Many health problems are a result of this traditional ceremony. Most women that do not go through female genital mutilation do not get married or society looks down on them, because women are viewed as clean and more desirable if FGM has been performed on them. These are the various types of FGM that the men uphold, but it is the women who usually do the cutting. The women that do the cutting are known as Circumciser’s and usually are elderly women figures in the tribe, who went through the same trauma of FGM when they were young girls. Many women who have expressed their experience openly to someone have described scenes such as a group rape. They describe being powerless, held down ...
In Althaus’ article, she provides in-depth information about female circumcision; a highly controversial cultural ritual that is practiced in at least 28 countries
Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, is a practice that involves the removal of part or all of the female external genitalia. It occurs throughout the world, but most commonly in Africa where they say that it is a tradition and social custom to keep a young girl pure and a married woman faithful. But to some Westerners, the practice is viewed as being primitive and barbaric. We react with disgust and find it nearly incomprehensible that female genital mutilation can occur in the world today
The practice occurs in Africa, the Middle East, parts of Asia, and in immigrant communities in Europe and North America. An estimated 135 million of the world's girls and women have undergone genital mutilation, and two million girls a year are at risk - approximately 6,000 per day - about one every 15 seconds. (1) Although Female Genital Mutilation predates Islam and is not practiced by the majority of Muslims, it has acquired this religious dimension. However, FGM is a cross-cultural and cross-religious ritual. In Africa and the Middle East it is performed by Muslims, Coptic Christians, members of various indigenous groups, Protestants, and Catholics; to name a few.
The earliest record of FGM was in 25 BC, but it had probably been performed earlier than that. One of the earliest scholarly papers written about female circumcision was written in 1897 about how female circumcision has never been viewed in a good light outside of the countries that allow it. From an outsider’s (a country that does not allow it) point of view the practice of cutting a woman’s genitals is known as female circumcision, genital mutilation, and even genital surgeries (Porterfield).