Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an ancient traditional non-therapeutic surgical procedure that involves total or partial removal of the external parts of female genitalia. This paper aimed to define and classify FGM, identifies the prevalence, describes reasons for performing the practice, and concentrates on the problems associated to this practice with regard to women’s health, religious beliefs, and socio-cultural, behavioral and moral consequences. Researches and survey reports that the global actions have been taken to reduce or abolish the prevalence of the practice will be assessed.
Female genital mutilation (also known as female circumcision) is the cutting of female clitoral hood and removing clitoris. Following the cutting of female genital organ, there are many short-term and long-term health risk problems, and even death due to some complicated infections. The reasons for performing female genital mutilation are connected with socio-cultural beliefs, attitudes, values and customs, transition of girls into womanhood, tradition and cultural heritage, the fear of not having access to resources and opportunities as a young woman, perception to reduce sexual desire of females; hence, will sustain premarital virginity, and maintain marital fidelity. Actions have taken at international, national and regional levels since the past many years and have begun to bear fruits, but the practice is still undergoing in many countries in the world and highly prevalent in Africa. To continue and motivate further reduction in changing the society’s attitudes towards female genital mutilation in the countries where the prevalence has remained stable so it’s therefor...
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... Clinical Evidence." Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics 287.6 (2013): 1137-1149. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Oct. 2013.
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8. UNICEF (2013), Female Genital Mutilation: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, New York.
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Female genital circumcision (FGC) is a cultural ritual that is performed to the vast majority of women within the countries of Sudan, Kenya, Mali, Benin, Togo, and parts of the Middle East. Female genital circumcision also termed as female genital mutilation is used based upon a person’s beliefs. This ritual has been highly controversial for many years especially in the western society, due to the health risks that women may have to go through. Doctor Gruenbaum, and anthropologist who studied FGC in Sudan, has researched this topic and believes that outsiders need to have an open mind about diverse cultures. I believe that this procedure should not be illegal; however, education about the risks of the procedure should be enforced in the countries where this takes place, in order to create a safer environment for the ritual to be performed in. The goal of this essay is to know what Female Genital Circumcision is and different types of FGC and why this is performed and why it is important for outsiders to not have ethnocentric views when dealing with this. This essay also deals with why it should be medicalized instead of enforcing laws to ban this years long tradition in all African countries. When challenging female genital circumcision, we are also challenging the people who perform this procedure, their culture, values and beliefs.
Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, is a practice that involves the removal of part or all of the female external genitalia. It occurs throughout the world, but most commonly in Africa where they say that it is a tradition and social custom to keep a young girl pure and a married woman faithful. But to some Westerners, the practice is viewed as being primitive and barbaric. We react with disgust and find it nearly incomprehensible that female genital mutilation can occur in the world today
Woman who live in the United States are not typically circumcised, however some woman live out if the social normality in the United States and have for reasons such as religion been circumcised. Woman all over the United States are affected by the practice of female circumcision even though it is illegal; being circumcised is illegal because there are no medical benefits as a woman. In many cases children of immigrant parents will come to the United States circumcised, this can be difficult for children developing in an environment in which female circumcision is not practiced or widely accepted. The effects of female circumcision and it’s physical, psychological and social effects on women who live in the United States can be impactful to
There’s a organization today to help stop this critical dilemma. Woman all over the world are fighting for this practice who has affected woman for more than 5,000 years. These entire women want to have their voices heard. Everyone and anyone can help fight back for this young girls and woman by giving donations to bring this dreadful experience to an end. Donations can be made on www.stopfgmnow.com. Because If the community won’t help stop it people doing it won’t. “Female genital mutilation targets little girls, baby girls – fragile angels who cannot fight back. It’s a crime against humanity. It’s abuse. Its absolute criminal and we have to stop it – Waris Dirie
A hot button issue in our society over the years has been the topic of male and female circumcision. This issue has been portrayed in both ethical and political paradigms. “It is estimated that about 30% of males are circumcised worldwide for religious, cultural, and health reasons, most of whom live in major parts of the Middle East, Central Asia, West Africa and Israel, as well as in the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand,” according to Demuth (1). Male circumcision is the medical process of the removal of the foreskin that covers the head of the penis. In continuation, the article “Prevalence of Female Genital Cutting among Egyptian Girls,” estimates that between “100 and 130 million girls and women now alive in at least 28 African countries and the Middle East have been subjected to female circumcision or female genital mutilation (FGM)” stated by Tag-Eldin (3). The female genital mutilation is a bit different than a male’s circumcision, generally consisting of three types. “Type 1 is the removal of the clitoris, Type 2 is the removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, and Type 3 is the removal of all parts of the external genitalia, which includes: the clitoris, the labia minora/majora, and then sewing the rest of the tissues,” according to Pauls (4). The origin of circumcision is currently unknown, but according to the article “Circumcision”, there is a theory that in Ancient Egypt, Egyptians men were circumcised and eliminated all of their body hair for probably hygienic reasons. In addition, in the “Book of the Dead” it describes the sun god, Ra, to have circumcised himself (40). This suggests that it may have also been for religious reasons.
"Did you know that 125 million women have experienced female genital mutilation worldwide, and 3 million girls estimate at risk of the procedure each year"? (Facts to End FGM). Female genital mutilation is a procedure for females that implicates partial or total removal of the female genital organs. This procedure intentionally alters or causes injury to the female that can have short and long-term health risks with no benefits. In recent years, the practice of female genital mutilation has been increasingly in the news, generating a complex debate about cultural norms and the worth of sexual functioning (Nussbaum 13). Female genital mutilation is known in terms such as female circumcision and female genital cutting. Female circumcision is the action or traditional practices of cutting off the clitoris and sometimes the labia of girls or young women. FGM contemplates as a dull violation of human rights for women and girls. There are four types of FGM operations. The first type is excision or removal of the clitoral hood, that is either with or without removal of parts or all of the clitoris. The second type is the removal of the clitoris together with parts or all the labia minora. The third type is the removal of or all the external genitalia. The fourth type is a variety of procedures that includes, scraping or cutting of the vagina and surrounding tissues. "The World Health Organization estimates that overall, in today's world between 85 and 115 million women have had such operations" (Nussbaum 13).
Female circumcision is viewed as a disgusting and barbaric act by a majority of people in first world countries. The United States has even gone as far as to get an international law made to ban female circumcision because of the harmful physical and psychological problems associated with it. In the “Female Genital Cutting Fact Sheet” created and reviewed by Caroline Banquet-Walsh, Sandra Jordan, and Francesca Moneta I discovered that female genital mutilation is an e...
Females as a general population have been faced with discrimination across the ages. In recent history, women have begun to assert their freedom and independence from the male oriented traditions that have spanned generations. In industrialized countries the discrimination of women has diminished, but a serious form of violation of human rights occurs sometimes in parts of the world, such as Africa, the Middle East, and even sometimes the United States and other industrialized countries in North America and Europe. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an umbrella term for three subtypes of crimes committed against women as a part of various coming of age rituals for young girls in certain patriarchal communities in Africa, spreading through migration of a populace through Northeastern and Western Africa and some spread into the Middle Eastern countries. These communities integrated this practice into women through marriage into these cultures, spreading this practice into their daughters and so forth. FGM has been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) into three basic subtypes, each growing more and more disturbing. Subtype number one is a clitoridectomy which is the complete or partial removal of the clitoris, while subtype two it includes the clitoridectomy plus the removal of the labia minora of the young girl. Alone, these two types of FGM composed approximately 90 percent of female genital mutilation. The third subtype is the most gruesome that is the narrowing the vagina opening by sealing the orifice with the use of the labia majora. These medical procedures have been described the WHO working in conjunction with United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Un...
For one minute I just want you to think you were born a female in an African country. Did you no you are 90% more likely to have had gone through some form of female genital mutilation. Every day, thousands of girls are targeted for mutilation. Like torture, female genital mutilation (FGM) involves the deliberate infliction of severe pain and suffering. Its effects can be life-threatening. Most survivors have to cope with the physical and mental scars for the rest of their lives.
Female circumcision (sometimes known as Female Genital Mutilation or female genital cutting) has been exercised in many different forms, in many different countries, for a long period of time. Female circumcision is defined as an operation performed to the female genital area that causes harm and changes the organ for no medical reason. Cultural, religious, and social factors are the main causes to FGM, and is mostly practiced on female infants up to the age of 15. This procedure does not benefit any female’s health whatsoever. The majority of people who practice female circumcision are those living in Africa. Coming from an African culture, where people participate in harsh practices such as female circumcision is a huge issue that needs to
Female genital mutilation is not an issue that will blow over immediately; it requires extreme measures, strategies, and persistence. As a major community health issue, it is imperative that FGM procedures be publicized and made aware of. We must form a foundation that increases advocacy and pushes for legislation that will benefit women around the world.
Therefore it is the responsibility of cultures to aid one another in eradicating practices, such as FGM/FGC, which are considered a violation of human rights. FGM/FGC is considered a violation of three fundamental human rights according to universalists: the right to health, the right to life, liberty and the security of personhood, and the right to an adequate education that includes proper knowledge of the cultural practice (UNDHR, 1948). Through activism by Amnesty International and the testimony of women who have undergone the procedure the negative side effects of undergoing the procedure are widely documented and therefore do not need to be listed in this essay. The universalist perspective on FGM/FGC is based on the argument that as the procedure has no health benefits and instead is in violation of girls human rights, the morals
From that, the moment involved more and more actors and organizations to stop the insanity. Recently UNICEF and ialGO urged African authorities to stop FGM by educating local communities, families and young girls the disadvantage of FGM. The WHO is involved in educating women the consequences of FGM. February 2010, WISE (women Islamic initiative in spirituality and equality) reaffirmed that they will take all actions to abandon th FGM. The UN population fund and UNCEIF says that 8000 communities in Africa have agreed to abandon the traditional practices. The interventions of the TAM's has resulted a drastic reduction in FGM. " I am the happiest girl in the world; My Mother and Father will not circumcise me"- a young girl from Kalioubia and participant in the the e Reduction of Female Genital Mutilation project says. Depending on numbers, I believe that TAM's are pretty effective in eradicating FGM. Women began to fight in 1970, It took almost half a century to stop this insanity with the help of different