Female Genital Mutilation: A Violation of Human Rights

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Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an ancient traditional non-therapeutic surgical procedure that involves total or partial removal of the external parts of female genitalia. This paper aimed to define and classify FGM, identifies the prevalence, describes reasons for performing the practice, and concentrates on the problems associated to this practice with regard to women’s health, religious beliefs, and socio-cultural, behavioral and moral consequences. Researches and survey reports that the global actions have been taken to reduce or abolish the prevalence of the practice will be assessed. Introduction Female genital mutilation (also known as female circumcision) is the cutting of female clitoral hood and removing clitoris. Following the cutting of female genital organ, there are many short-term and long-term health risk problems, and even death due to some complicated infections. The reasons for performing female genital mutilation are connected with socio-cultural beliefs, attitudes, values and customs, transition of girls into womanhood, tradition and cultural heritage, the fear of not having access to resources and opportunities as a young woman, perception to reduce sexual desire of females; hence, will sustain premarital virginity, and maintain marital fidelity. Actions have taken at international, national and regional levels since the past many years and have begun to bear fruits, but the practice is still undergoing in many countries in the world and highly prevalent in Africa. To continue and motivate further reduction in changing the society’s attitudes towards female genital mutilation in the countries where the prevalence has remained stable so it’s therefor... ... middle of paper ... ... Clinical Evidence." Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics 287.6 (2013): 1137-1149. Academic Search Premier. Web. 5 Oct. 2013. 6. Rouzi, A. (2013), Facts and controversies on female genital mutilation and Islam. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 18, 10-14. 7. Skaine, R. (2005). Female genital mutilation: Legal, cultural, and medical issues. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. 8. UNICEF (2013), Female Genital Mutilation: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change. The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, New York. 9. WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA (2011), Female Genital Mutilation: A joint statement, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 1-5. 10. Yirga, Kassa, Gebremichael (2012). Female Genital Mutilation: Prevalence, perceptions and effect on women’s health. International Journal of Women’s Health, 4, 45-54.
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