Congenital Heart Disease Essay

explanatory Essay
3354 words
3354 words

Cardiovascular system Congenital Heart Disease Congenital heart disease is a defect in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occurs prior to birth. Defects can be severe at birth and require immediate attention, while others are mild that will heal on its own, and some go unnoticed until a person is older. It affects 1 out of every 100 children at birth (WebMD, American Heart Association). Heart valve defects include narrowing of the valves or complete closure that stops forward blood flow. Some valves do not close properly allowing blood to leak backwards. Defects in the walls between the atria and ventricles of the heart may allow abnormal mixing of oxygenated and un-oxygenated blood between the left side and the right side of the heart. Heart muscles defects often lead to heart failure due to the muscle not working properly. The vital signs that detects a congenital birth defect is a pulse oximeter and blood pressure. Symptoms of congenital heart disease include rapid breathing, cyanosis (bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), fatigue, and poor blood circulation. Treatment depends on the type of defect, severity, age, and general health. Most children with congenital heart disease do not require treatment, but some with severe heart defects require heart catheter procedures, open heart surgery, heart transplants, and medications. Prior to pregnancy, females should check if she was vaccinated for rubella. The most critical time for preventing a congenital heart defect is during the first trimester; since the heart is one of the first organs to develop in a fetus. During pregnancy, mothers should take a multivitamin, avoid illegal drugs, alcohol, and viral infections, medications (especially lithium,... ... middle of paper ... ...tic devices, wheelchairs and rolling walkers can be used to support movement. Communication aids, such as computers with communication devices can be used to help with speech (NINDS; Bachrach, 2012). Cerebral Palsy cannot be prevented, but if pregnant health precautions can decrease chances of the infant to develop Cerebral Palsy. Having a healthy diet, proper use of 16 medications, proper prenatal care, and consulting with doctor about medications are effective precautions during pregnancy. Also, if suffering with diabetes, anemia, hypertension, seizure, or nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy, then these must be controlled. After birth, do not shake baby, which can lead to shaken baby syndrome and brain damage. Do not expose children to lead, this can also lead to brain damage, and give proper immunizations at the right time for the child (Bachrach, 2012). 17

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that congenital heart disease is a defect in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occurs prior to birth.
  • Explains that heart valve defects include narrowing of the valves or complete closure that stops forward blood flow. heart muscles defects often lead to heart failure due to the muscle not working properly.
  • Explains the symptoms of congenital heart disease. treatment depends on the type of defect, severity, age, and general health.
  • Explains that coronary artery disease affects more than 15 million americans. if there are substances that block the blood and oxygen from flowing, a heart attack can occur.
  • Explains the symptoms of a heart attack, including chest pain, upper body discomfort, and shortness of breath. people over 50 are more vulnerable to getting coronary artery disease.
  • Explains that there are different types of treatments for coronary artery disease. angioplasty may be performed if the disease cannot be simply controlled by medicine.
  • Explains coronary artery bypass graft surgery, where a blood vessel is taken from another part of the body and “grafted” or replaces the old vessel that is affected.
  • Explains that asthma is the most common chronic disease amongst children and kills 255,000 people worldwide per year.
  • Explains that asthma can't be cured, but it can be controlled. there are two common ways of controlling asthma: quick relief and inhaled corticosteroid.
  • Explains how to prevent an asthma attack by reducing triggers such as air pollution, allergies, cold air, sickness, smoke, fragrances, and other things that can trigger asthma.
  • Explains that lung cancer is a result of uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells within the lungs.
  • Explains that if a patient has difficulty breathing, the doctor may use that to do further testing. the cancer can go to the liver, bones, and brain.
  • Describes the environmental factors that can cause lung cancer. cigarettes, asbestos fiber, and exposure to radon gas can mutate the deoxyribonucleic acid, or dna within the lung cells.
  • Explains that different types of treatments are required to prevent lung cancer, keeping your health and environment safe, and keeping the house and car smoke free.
  • Explains that the pain scale is the only vital sign that can detect degenerative disk disease because the other vital signs would normally remain normal.
  • Explains that intervertebral discs of healthy young adults consist mainly of fluid, up to 90% as people age. small tears or cracks develop in the annulus fibrous (outer layer) of the disk.
  • Explains that diagnosing degenerative disk disease requires numerous exams, tests, and imaging. nerve function and muscle strength are some tests a physician would perform.
  • Explains that there are many treatment options for this disease including surgery and non-surgical therapies.
  • Explains that spinal fusion is a surgery that fuses two vertebrae to provide stability to the spine. there are different types of decompression surgery.
  • Explains that osteoarthritis can be prevented by exercise, good posture, lifting correctly, maintaining a healthy weight and good nutrition.
  • Explains that pain in the joints may be a burning or sharp feeling that is either constant or in different periods. stiffness in joints can happen after waking up, or after sitting, the muscle around the joint can get weaker.
  • Explains that maintaining a healthy weight, exercising and doing physical therapy helps keep bones healthy. aerobic exercises can help keep the heart healthy, muscles strong, and swimming.
  • Explains lactose intolerance, a natural sugar found in milk and dairy products. symptoms include stomach bloating, pain or cramps, gas, loose stools, and diarrhea.
  • Explains that the pain scale is the only vital sign that can detect lactose intolerance.
  • Explains that there is no cure for lactose intolerance, but it can be easily treated.
  • Explains that heartburn affects the digestive system. it is common in 4 out of 10 people a month, and 2 in the week. the common symptom is gastro-esophageal reflex.
  • Explains that different people have different triggers, such as fatty foods, eating large meals, and eating meals during the late night.
  • Explains that antacids, proton pumps, and lansoprazole can help heal minor heartburn.
  • Recommends avoiding citrus fruits, tomato sauce, fatty foods, chocolate mint, and spicy foods. alcohol, carbonated drinks, coffee, caffeine and juices should be avoided.
  • Explains that muscle spasms or cramps are painful involuntary contractions of a muscle. they explain that poor blood circulation in the legs, overexertion of the calf muscles, insufficient stretching before exercise, dehydration, and magnesium or potassium deficiency can cause them.
  • Explains that most people treat a muscle cramp by themselves with massages, stretching, icing, warming the muscle, and soaking in an epsom salt bath.
  • Explains that muscle cramps can be prevented by properly stretching the hamstring, staying hydrated, and eating more foods high in vitamins, magnesium, calcium and potassium.
  • Explains that cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that can occur during infancy or early childhood.
  • Explains the risk factors for cerebral palsy, including assisted reproductive technology, jaundice, thyroid problems, intellectual disabilities, seizures, and brain damage.
  • Explains that symptoms of cerebral palsy can occur before the age of three and include a lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movements (ataxia), stiff and/or tight muscles, exaggerated reflexes (spasticity) and pain.
  • Explains that cerebral palsy cannot be cured, however there are treatments such as physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. orthopedic surgery and selective dorsal rhizotomy can be performed.
  • Opines that pregnant health precautions can decrease the chances of cerebral palsy. they recommend a healthy diet, proper prenatal care, and proper immunizations.
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