Cloning Will Have a Negative Effect Society

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Cloning Will Have a Negative Effect Society The definition of a clone is an organism that has the same genetic information as another organism or organisms. Scientific and ethical studies of cloning, prove that, cloning will have a negative rather than a positive effect on society. The goals and purposes for cloning range from making copies of those who have died, to bettering the engineering of offspring in humans and animals (Hawley, 1998). Cloning could also directly offer a means of curing diseases or could offer a technique that could extend means to acquiring new data for the sciences of embryology and how organisms develop as a whole over time. Currently, the agricultural industry demands nuclear transfer to produce better livestock, and cloning could massively improve the agricultural industry as the technique of nuclear transfer improves (Hawley, 1998). Nuclear transfer takes the nucleus of a cell from one individual and places it in the egg or another individual, from which the nucleus has been removed (Wertz, 1998b). The change in phenotype, the observable physical and biochemical characteristics of an organism, of livestock is accomplished by bombarding embryos of livestock with genes that produce "super" livestock traits; however, this technique is not efficient because only five percent of the offspring express these "super" traits that would guarntee a more productive industry. Scientists can easily genetically alter adult cells; therefore, cloning from an adult cell would make it easier to alter the genetic material. The goal of transgenic livestock1 is to produce livestock with ideal characteristics for the agricultural industry and to be able to manufacture biological products such as proteins for humans. Farmers are attempting to produce transgenic livestock already, but not efficiently, due to the minimal ability to alter embryos genetically. Researchers can harvest and grow adult cells in large amounts unlike embryos; scientists can then genetically alter the adult cells, find which ones transformed, and clone only those cells. Scientists also ponder the idea of cloning endangered species to increase their population. The possibilities of cloning are endless, however as suggested by (Hawley, 1998) we are actually doing much of this research for the improvement of life for humans. Cloning provides better research capabilities for finding cures to many diseases. Livestock can produce biological proteins that help people who have diseases including Diabetes, Parkinson's, and Cystic Fibrosis. There are also possibilities that nuclear transfer could provide benefits to those who would like to have children. For example, couples who are infertile, or have genetic disorders, could use cloning to produce a child.

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