After seeking a second term as Tribune Tiberus Gracchus was publicly murdered by a group of senators. *Following in his brother 's footsteps Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune for the years 123 and 122 BC. Gaius Gracchus ' first actions were to devise laws limiting the power of the senate, focusing on trial procedure, capital punishment, exile and diversifying juries to include equites. The inclusion of equites is of importance primarily because it allowed the equestrian class more influence in Roman politics, a fact which likely aided Gaius Marius in his rise to power. He then expanded upon his brother 's land bills demanding increased allotments so as to increase the number of employed citizens.
He cites Constantine as the emperor who created a mobile field army that constantly stayed with the emperor and removed the frontier defenses. Thereafter, several mobile field armies became necessary in order to really defend the empire. He argues that this shift in strategy greatly contributed to the ultimate destruction of the Roman Empire because defense in depth was essentially an admission that it was impossible to prevent foreign invasion. Meanwhile, many other ancient scholars have argued against the idea that the Romans employed a traditional grand strategy at all. Benjamin Isaac argues against the assumption that Roman military strategy operated under a logical and well thought out plan.
In order to maintain their political position it would mean to consolidating its power and not giving in to the interests of any other order except its own. The urban masses were forced to completely separation from their land and their citizenship, and forced to sell themselves away to farmer at the highest bidder. It seemed by this time that the senatorial classes became greedy and instability of the masses. The Optimates were conservative known as the good men the members of the aristocracy. The Optimates interests were to limit the power of the popular assemblies and extend the power of the Senate.
The Catalinarian Conspiracy and the Late Republic In 63 b.c., while Gnaeus Pompey was conquering and reorganizing the East, and Julius Caesar was ascending the cursus honourum, a discontented noble named Lucius Sergius Catalina, anglicized to Cataline, fomented a revolution against the Roman Republic and attempted to become supreme ruler. This attempted coup d’état against the Roman state was foiled by the senior consul, Marcus Tullius Cicero. The events surrounding what we call the Catalinarian Conspiracy are detailed by several sources, notably Cicero himself in his four orations against Cataline, and Sallust in his work, The Conspiracy of Cataline. Cicero and Sallust, in addition to other writers such as Appian and Plutarch, fail to provide a completely clear and unbiased account of the events. What is known is that Cataline was a patrician and a former Sullan partisan who had become rich during the proscriptions of Sulla.
Question: Account for Pompey’s rise to political prominence between 78- 62 BC. You are to examine and analyse political machinations of Pompey and attempt to explain how he managed to fulfil his ambition. You must establish a clear understanding of the complexities of the political situation and the effects of the Civil War. Gnaeus Pompeius Crassus, better known as Pompey, or Pompey the Great, was born on September the 20th, 106 BC. Pompey was a Roman general and statesman, the erstwhile ally of Julius Caesar, but later his arch rival for power.
The general who dominated the strongest army ruled the state. Repeated power struggles of these military strongmen ignited more civil wars that further undermined the stability and unity of the late Roman Republic. Augustus saw how divisive to the Roman polity civil war was. He understood that control of the legions by the civil government was necessary for the establishment of peace and order throughout the Roman Empire. He wanted to reorganize and institute changes in the military to assure that it would not rise again in support of some triumphant general to challenge the legitimacy of the state.
The reason why Julius was killed was because Julius Caesar was for not doing his actions in secrecy and deceit. After the assassination of Julius Caesar, there were civil wars occurring and there was a period of unrest. Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius then ruled Rome. In 27BC, Octavius changed his name to Augustus Caesar. This period was when Augustus won the battle for rule of Rome, so now the triumvirate was gone.
Aside from his legendary military prowess, shrewd political mind, oratorical and literary brilliance, reputation for even handedness and demagogic appeal, part of what fascinates us even today about Caesar is that his assassination in 44 B.C. by a group of short sighted senators left a feeling of inconclusiveness to the story of Caesar. Was his ultimate goal a monarchy or did he simply wish to drastically reform Rome to ensure control of its conquests? Did he really aspire to conquer the whole earth as Alexander had? What would he have accomplished in the years after 44 B.C.?