Rome in The Age of Augustus

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30 BC ~ Octavian was given the title of Imperator, which was used in the Eastern provinces. Imperium suggests unlimited imperium (or power) (Antiquity 2 Interpreting The Past) This was the first of many titles that were to be given to Octavian after his defeat of Mark Antony in 31 BC at the Battle of Actium. It indicates that the provinces thought Octavian was worthy of being honoured, and that the power he possessed at the time should remain his. Therefore this was the first factor that initiated the rise of Octavian. 28 BC ~ During the struggle between Octavian and Antony, both men had purged the Senate of those who they viewed as posing a threat to them and who might initiate a revolt. These men were often replaced with loyal supporters of Octavian and Antony. In 28 BC, Octavian continued this trait by reducing the number of Senator to 800 (Antiquity 2 Interpreting The Past). This was a vital factor in Octavian’s rise to power, as it eliminated many of his rivals and enemies. The assassination of Julius Caesar, attested to the danger which might have otherwise arisen. 27 BC, The First Settlement ~ on the 13th of January, Octavian transferred the power of the state to the Senate and people of Rome. In doing this he was handing back the unofficial powers that he had held during the civil war. (Antiquity 2 Interpreting The Past) The accounts of ancient sources differ in relation to the time span of this event. Dio Cassius implies that this happened in one step early in the year. “I lay down my office in its entirety and return to you all authority absolute – authority over the army, the laws and the provinces – not only those territories which you entrusted to me, but those which I later secured for you.” (Roman History, A... ... middle of paper ... ...” (Res Gestae Divi Augusti). The title Pater Patriae, was the last factor that contributed to the rise of Octavian. Works Cited Toni Hurley, Philippa Medcalf, Christine Murray, Jan Rolph ~ HSC Course Third Edition Antiquity 2 Interpreting The Past, Published in 2008, pages 414-443. Antony Kamm ~ The Romans: An Introduction Second Edition, Published in 2008, pages 47, 93 Dio Cassius ~ Roman History (as presented in Antiquity 2) Augustus (Octavian) ~ Res Gestae Divi Augusti (as presented in Antiquity 2) Eck ~ The Age of Augustus, p.45 (as presented in Antiquity 2) Scullard ~ From the Gracchi to Nero, p.221 (as presented in Antiquity 2) Peter Roberts ~ Excel HSC Ancient History, Copyright 2001, pages 316 – 324

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