The empero... ... middle of paper ... ... you avoid their turning to piracy?” The Chinese merchants grew in wealth and power as they gained profits from the foreigners (Document ). Ming China used a tribute system as a basis for trade and to restrict access of foreign traders in the Chinese markets, particularly by limiting them to specified ports under the control of the central government (Document 9). However, despite the prosperity and growth of the Chinese empire under the rule of the Hongwu it declined with corruption and enuchs who pursued their own selfish ends (Document 10). Furthermore, the Chinese military could not defend their borders from the Japanese pirate attacks shown in Document 2. In summary, the Chinese attempted to extend their boundaries and gain profits from foreign trade but corruption in the government and Japanese sea pirates contributed to the empire’s decline.
After a long period of isolationism, China and Japan were pressured to open trade and have foreign relations with the West in the nineteenth century. During the late 1800’s the Industrial Revolution created a huge gap between the Western and Eastern powers, which left China and Japan in a military and technological disadvantage (Fruhstuck, Lecture). Initially, China and Japan closed their doors to the West because they were both self sustaining nations, did not like foreign influences, and believed that their society was superior to the West. They both tried to resist foreign influences by keeping their interaction with the West to a minimum, but they were no match for Western technology and eventually they each had to sign unequal treaties that favored the Western powers (Craig & Reischauer, 1978). However, China and Japan’s reactions to the treaties that forced them to open their trading ports for foreigners were very different; China rejected Westernization while Japan accepted it (Lockwood, 1956).
Japan allowed economic competition between different groups because of its flexible political institutions. China and Japan, despite their similarities, responded very differently to western influences in the 19th century. China was held back by its institutions and refused to break isolationism, while Japan gave in to their demands and successfully modernized. Japan’s political system, dynamic elite, and acceptance to borrow culture led to efficient industrialization and modernization. Japan’s success was also due to the greater knowledge of the West and the understanding of the consequences the nation would serve if they didn’t accept the pressure from the West.
As a result, China was astonishingly impacted by imperialism from Great Britain during the 1800’s. During the 18th century Great Britain had set up trade off the coast of the Chinese borders to trade British silver for China’s soft silks, fine porcelain, and strong teas. During this period Qing officials overlooked the foreign brokers. By the early 1800’s, however, Great Britain b... ... middle of paper ... ...erty, social unrest, drug addictions, and government bankruptcy when foreign exploitation emerged. In spite of this, China by not being able to withstand western influence incorporated imperialism and obtained a modern military and technology from the favored nations.
With the Industrial Revolution and Age of Imperialism intensifying among Western nations in the 19th century, China faced an impending threat to its ancient cultural values. Pressured to adapt to the changing global environment but fearful of losing its traditional identity, China and its reform leaders have since attempted to incorporate a “ti-yong” distinction between utilizing Western function and preserving Chinese values, most notably in the Self-Strengthening movement beginning in 1860 and Deng Xiaopeng’s economic reforms of the 1980s. The Qing’s attempts at self-strengthening proved unsuccessful with humiliating defeats in the Sino-French and Sino-Japanese Wars in the late 1800s. However, Deng’s utilization of Western market techniques in China’s socialist state proved wildly successful, with annual economic growth of 8-15% throughout the decade. The disparity of success between these two movements demonstrates the evolving political strength of the Chinese state that has revolutionized in its sovereignty and organization since the mid-nineteenth century, providing the foundation for mass reform and Chinese modernization.
Japan and China reacted differently to the reforms of Imperialism. When put under pressure, Japan succumbed to the power of Western Imperialist ideas. Conversely, China, resisted for a long time. As a result, Japan had more technology, while China was unenlightened of the new advances. Japan also gained more respect from other countries, that China did not have.
Although it has been argued that Deng was leading a totalitarian regime, historians tend to overlook the idea that the Chinese have different ideologies and morals than people in the west. Chinese intellectuals who looked to the west as a model for democracy absorbed themselves into the western culture, and believed that everything that China stood for was ‘backward.’ This view of the Chinese society forced the people to hold resentments against Deng, which led to Democratic uprisings and movements. Deng simply wanted to create a better economy for the Chinese people to live in according to Chinese values, but the society did not see it this way as an inflow of western attitudes and beliefs had been embedded into their minds. Deng knew that China’s problems were coming from within the political system, and he attempted to solve these problems, but when he realized that these problems could not be solved, he resorted to more of an authoritarian rather than a democratic regime. After 1978, China’s society faced a whole new relationship with the state.
During the 19th Century, China and Japan each responded differently to western penetration. China was against industrializing and did not want to create an empire like those of the western empires. Japan however learned that if they wanted to survive they had to adopt the changes that the western empires were adopting. Japan began to create an industrialized society and soon became one of the major industrial powers. China went through many rebellions and finally decided to industrialize just enough to be able to fight off the western empires.
The Macartney mission was a relative success, for communication between the West and China had been established, but the latter two missions were failures in term of establishing a friendly relationship between powers. The main objectives of the missions were to open the whole East to British trade, place relatio... ... middle of paper ... ... free trade between 1793-1839 was mainly due to China’s construct that it was superior over any other countries. If the Chinese had not been so self-absorbed and so intent on keeping their country as closed off as possible, they might have at least realized that the Guangzhou system of trade was collapsing and that if it did collapse, the tribute system would go down with it. China established the relationship between tribute and trade as an instrument for controlling the “barbarian”. The failure in responding effectively to Western demands due to Chinese construct was a failure, for not only it had exacerbated grievances of foreigners towards the Chinese system, it had also aggravated the devastating silver outflow and inflation problem in China.
Japan's Economic Growth and America's Vulnerability For years after the end of the second world war, the Japanese suffered from an inferiority complex. This was the result of the American aid to Japan which helped to rebuild their country. Soon the Japanese started producing goods, small stuff at first, like junky toys in the earlier years - but then came better items, much better items. Now it is the Americans that suffer from the inferiority complex, not familiar with being economically vulnerable and not entirely in control of their destinies. Who to blame - the Japanese of course.