Change Models: Theories And Models Of Change Management

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g) Models of change
Mento (2002) from his research reported that models of change management are tools for representing and describing the theoretical aspects of change process. These models summarises the change process into series of stages or steps. The remaining article will now provide a critical review of theories and approaches currently available to inform change process management in organisations.
i. Continuous, discontinuous and incremental change
Todnem R (2005), Burnes (2004) and Grundy (1993) categorise change by the rate of occurrence into continuous, discontinuous and incremental change. Furthermore, incremental change is defined as when each parts of an organisation deal with one problem and one objective at a time. Authors
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To respond to this criticism, the emergent change model was proposed. The emergent model acknowledges the unpredictability in change process, and endorses the development of multidimensional approach to change process within organisation as a part of organisational learning process.

• Kotter model (1996)

Kotter (1996) in his research paper offer more practical guidance to organisations and managers on the adaptation of emergent change model. The author proposed that for successful implementation of a change process an eight-stage process is required to achieve transformation. These eight stage include:

1. Establish a sense of urgency – increase the desire that a change is necessary
2. Form a powerful guiding coalition – powerful group of people who can work well together.
3. Create a vision – that provides a clear understanding of what the change is all about.
4. Communicate the vision –extensive communication
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One of the disadvantage is that it is a time consuming model with top-down, approach. There is only limited oppertunities for co-creation. Can lead to deep employee frustration if the stages of grief and individual needs are not taken into account. (Kotter, 1996)
h) Issues with change/ why change fails

Luecke (2013) reported that it is necessity for organisation to successfully manage change in order to be competitive in the ever evolving environment. Successful change is the acceptance of the change by those involved in the change process. The author also argued that employee trust in those managing change was strongly linked to employee resistance to change. It was highlighted that there are mainly dimensions of resistance i.e. cognitive, emotional and personality related issues. Therefore, good people management skills are critical to the successful implementation of a change process.

Smith (2002) emphasised that the key enablers of successful change process include managerial and leadership support, addressing employee needs, and access to resources. On the other hand a culture that lack alignment with organizational vision and mission, poor participation and engagement of employee, poor communication, lack of training or
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