According to Hanley it is defined as an “illusion” or “hallucination” of movement, usually rotational, of yourself or your environment (Hanley, 2002). The cause of vertigo is initially classified into two separate categories based upon where it originates. It can originate from the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. Distinguishing characteristics separating them include the type of nystagmus, imbalance, nausea, hearing loss, duration, and non auditory neurologic symptoms. The imbalance in central disorders are typically very severe, in which the patient is unable to stand still or walk.
Lesions occurring in the cerebellum have the unfortunate effect of abolishing conditioned response acquisition and retention. Such lesions and/or diseases cause motor incoordination called ataxia, with symptoms of tremors, instability and teetering, and an inability to maintain regular movement of tempo (nanonline.org). There are three known major cerebellar syndromes. The vestibulocerebellar cortex controls movement of the eyes and body relating to gravity and turning of the head in space; damage to this area results in ataxia gait and stance, as described above. The spinocerebellar system, which receives information via rapid spinocerebellar pathways during the duration of movement, modulates and smoothes that movement.
The elevated pressure causes irrevocable damage to the optic nerve and retinal fibers as well as damage to the other areas of the visual system, which leads to a gradual and permanent loss of vision if not treated (Glaucoma, 2002). Damage to the optic nerve causes loss of vision because this nerve, or group of ganglion axons, is responsible for transporting images to the brain from the eye. While there are other possible causes of glaucoma, such as variations of the myocilin gene, IOP is thought to be the main cause (Learn about Glaucoma, 2002). Treatment, especially with early detection, can slow or cease continued damage. Types of Glaucoma There are several types of glaucoma, the most prominent types being Open Angle, and Acute Angle Closure and the more infrequent types including Secondary Glaucoma, Congenital Glaucoma, Normal Tension Glaucoma (NTG), and Pigmentary Glaucoma.
Damage to the right parietal lobe can result in neglecting part of the body or space (contralateral neglect), which can impair many self-care skills such as dressing and washing. Right side damage can also cause difficulty in making things (constructional apraxia), denial of deficits (anosagnosia) and drawing ability. (Kimura,D.1977) Bi- lateral damage (large lesions to both sides) can cause "Balint's Syndrome," a visual attention and motor syndrome. This is characterized by the inability to voluntarily control the gaze (ocular apraxia), inability to integrate components of a visual scene (simultanagnosia), and the inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance (optic ataxia). Special deficits (primarily to memory and personality) can occur if there is damage to the area between the parietal and temporal lobes.
Introduction Traumatic brain injury, also known as TBI, is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals between the ages of 15 and 25 (5). A TBI can lead to many diffuse effects throughout the body depending on the severity and location of the injury. Some of the more common issues associated with this pathology include disturbed cerebral blood flow, alterations in sensorimotor pathway connectivity, injury to neurons and atrophy of associated structures. In addition, deficits in neuromotor activity are commonly seen. The functional muscle weakness, coordination deficits and gait disturbances associated with poor neuromotor activity are usually consequences of injury to the sensorimotor areas of the brain.
In fact, their perceptions become derailed; misinterpreting situations and the chronology of events. They are unable to distinguish between reality and imaginary.
In other words, this motor center of the brain processes and initiates motor functions. Each body part is intended to have a distinct and well-defined spot on the map. In the brain of someone with focal hand dystonia, the organization of the individual fingers becomes blurred or distorted. Therefore, the brain has difficulty differentiating between the fingers. The symptoms include the hands or fingers failing to respond to commands or reacting in unintenti... ... middle of paper ... ...nstate the correct hand representation as that which caused the problem.
* Hemineglect is a condition in which the affected person ‘neglects’ or fails to give attention to stimuli on the side of space that is contralateral to the side of brain lesion. * It may occur after damage to either side of the hemisphere, but has found to be more severe for patients who have had lesions in the right hemisphere. * Hemineglect is a heterogeneous condition, meaning there are many different types of neglect that can be acquired. For a single person this can occur in multiple dispositions; these include visual, m... ... middle of paper ... ... studies show that techniques such as visual scanning provide a mixture of results. For some patients like * visual scanning proved ultimately successful, whereas for * the method had only little success in the training and showed no correlation to getting better in the outside world.
Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is involved in a wide variety of functions. It is known as the area of the brain which has “executive control”, taking input from other areas of the brain and combining and applying those functions (Kalat 2004). Lesions to the prefrontal area can greatly impair overt behavior of an inflicted individual. These deficits are dependent upon the severity of the lesion and the specific region of the prefrontal cortex in which the lesion resides (ventrolateral, dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, and anterior prefrontal)(Eslinger 2003). Individuals with prefrontal lesions usually display emotional, social and moral deficits (Elinger 2003).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a pattern of continued shortfalls to attention as well as impulsive hyperactivity, which occurs permanently more than expected throughout the moderate growth, and which appears clearly in the variety of statuses(APA, 2000). This situation dramatically leads to various deteriorations in the child's progress in both of social and academic aspects. (Mayes,Bagwell and Erkulwater, 2009). (ADHD) is described as a chaotic behavior disorder with particular deficit in Address the neuropsychological symptoms . However, (ADHD) supposed to be basically related to neuropsychological (Tannock and Brown, 2000).